Total Energy Head (H)

Substituting the Total Head equation and after simplification, the head H can be expressed as follows (see Figure 27.8 (MSMA,2000) or Figure 18.4 (MSMA,2011)for graphical representation of terms in the equation):

                 (Eq 7.5)


Q         is the flow rate in culvert barrel (m3/s)

n          is the Manning’s roughness coefficient

A          is the area of flow for full cross section in m2

P          is the wetted perimeter in m

R         is the hydraulic radius (m)

L          is the length of culvert barrel (m)

g          acceleration due to gravity (= 9.8 m/s2)


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