MSMA Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia training seminars, workshops and software

AN EVALUATION OF THE MAGNITUDE OF CHANGES IN THE SIZING OF DRAINAGE STRUCTURES USING THE FIRST AND SECOND EDITIONS OF THE “URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMENT MANUAL FOR MALAYSIA (MSMA)”

Ir. Dr. Quek Keng Hong B.E. (civil), M.Eng.Sc, Ph.D. (NSW), PE
Managing Director, MSMAware Sdn Bhd
Note: Condensed versions of this paper are submitted for publication in the IEM Journal and Bulletin.
(This paper may be download from http://technicalpaper1.msmam.com)

Abstract

This paper investigated the changes between the first and second editions of MSMA on five key parameters as follows: (i) Design Average Recurrence Interval, (ii) Design Storm, (iii) Rational Method, (iv) Time-Area Method, (v) On-Site Detention and (vi) Sediment basins. The magnitudes of changes were quantified using case studies and the results are as follows:

  • Design Average Recurrence Interval: For medium density residential and commercial and city area, the storm intensity has increased by up to 122% for minor system for an ARI increase from 5 to 10 years, and up to 133% for major system for an ARI increase from 50 year to 100 years between MSMA (2000) and (2011). It is emphasised that the changes in the storm intensity is not only due to changes in the ARI but also the higher IDF data in MSMA (2011).
  • Design Storm: For durations of between 15 to 700 min, the IDF estimates using MSMA (2011) were mostly higher than those estimated using MSMA (2000). In the study, out of 14 stations, 10 of them (or 71%) were higher than the MSMA (2000) curve, while the remaining 4 stations (or 29%) were lower than the first edition estimates. It is concluded that the design storms estimated based on MSMA (2011) for Kuala Lumpur can be up to about 26% higher than MSMA (2000) for duration below 700 minutes, for 71% of the stations.
  • Rational Method: For commercial and city area, the peak discharge from MSMA (2011) is about 31% higher than the peak discharge from MSMA (2000). The discharge has increased from 16.9 to 22.1 m3/s. The runoff coefficient C has increased from 0.905 to 0.95 while the storm intensity has increased from 224.3 mm/hr to 279.4. The increase in C for commercial and city area and storm intensity in MSMA (2011) has attributed to a significantly higher peak discharge. In conclusion, the peak discharge computed using the Rational Method in MSMA (2011) is up to 31% higher than that in MSMA (2000). This increase is caused principally by the higher storm intensity in MSMA (2011) and by the higher C for commercial and city area in MSMA (2011). In general, it is concluded that 71% of the stations in Kuala Lumpur will have up to 26% higher storm intensity and up to 31% higher peak discharges for commercial and city area.
  • Time-Area Method: Applying the Time-Area Method to Kuala Lumpur, the peak discharges computed using MSMA (2011) is 1.27 times higher than that using MSMA (2000). The difference is due primarily to the higher temporal pattern for the urban area of Kuala Lumpur (Region 5) under MSMA (2011).
  • On-Site Detention: The result shows that for Kuala Lumpur, the PSD and SSR using MSMA (2011) are about 20% and 190% of MSMA (2000). The PSD and SSR using the ESM Method for Kuala Lumpur is about 55% and 103%, respectively, of those using MSMA (2000). For Pulau Pinang, the PSD and SSR using MSMA (2011) are about 18% and 180% of MSMA (2000), while the PSD and SSR using the ESM Method is about 55% and 129%, respectively, of those using MSMA (2000). The approximate Swinburne’s Method in MSMA (2011) results in underestimate of PSD and over estimate of the SSR. The ESM Method appeared to give slightly higher estimate of SSR compared to MSMA (2000) but a lot lower estimate compare to MSMA (2011). The ESM Method may be used instead of MSMA (2011) to give a better estimate of the PSD and SSR.
  • Sediment Basin: The dry sediment basin volume using MSMA (2011) is half of that using MSMA (2000) for 6 month ARI design (for projects taking more than two years) as MSMA (2011) does not cover 6 month ARI. The wet sediment basin volume was 65% higher using MSMA (2011) compared to MSMA (2000) because of it was based on 50 mm of rainfall for temporary BMP in MSMA (2011), compared to the 75th percentile storm of 36.75 mm in MSMA (2000) which is lower.
  • Detention Basin: Hydrographs were computed using the Time-Area Method based on MSMA (2000 and 2011) and routed through a detention basin in Kuala Lumpur using the Level-Pool routing procedure. It was found that the storm intensity increases by up to 1.26 times and the hydrograph peak increases by up to 1.27 times between MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011), while the increase in the storage volume of a detention basin is about 1.30 times.

 

 

 

Table of Summary of Changes in MSMA (2000 and 2011)

Procedures Changes Between MSMA (2000 and 2011) Magnitude of Changes Between MSMA (2000 and 2011)
Design ARI Design ARI increased from 5 to 10 years for minor system and 50 to 100 year for major system. Storm intensity increased by 1.22 times higher for minor system and 1.33 times higher for major system in Kuala Lumpur.
Design Storm Change in design storm computation The design storms estimated based on MSMA (2011) can be up to about 1.26 times higher than MSMA (2000) for 71% of the stations in Kuala Lumpur.
Rational Method Change in the Rational Method Formula The peak discharge computed using the Rational Method in MSMA (2011) is up to 1.31 times higher than that in MSMA (2000) for commercial and city area in Kuala Lumpur.
Time-Area Method Change in temporal pattern for the urban area of Kuala Lumpur

 

Applying the Time-Area Method to Kuala Lumpur, the peak discharges computed using the temporal patterns in MSMA (2011) is 1.27 times higher than that using the temporal pattern in MSMA (2000).
On-Site Detention Change from Swinburne’s Method (MSMA, 2000) to Approximate Swinburne’s Method (MSMA, 2011) For Kuala Lumpur, the Site Storage Requirement (SSR) using MSMA (2011) is about 1.9 times higher than MSMA (2000).
For Pulau Pinang, the Site Storage Requirement (SSR) using MSMA (2011) is about 1.8 times higher than MSMA (2000).
Exact Swinburne’s Method (ESM)- Applying Swinburne’s Method in MSMA (2000) to MSMA (2011) For Kuala Lumpur, the Site Storage Requirement (SSR) using ESM is about 1.03 times higher than MSMA (2000).
For Pulau Pinang, the Site Storage Requirement (SSR) using ESM is about 1.29 times higher than MSMA (2000).
Sediment Basin Changes in 6 month ARI design for dry basin.

 

The dry sediment basin volume using MSMA (2011) is half of that using MSMA (2000) for 6 month ARI design (for projects taking more than two years).
Use of 50 mm of rainfall for temporary BMP in MSMA (2011) compared to the 75th percentile storm in MSMA (2000) for wet basin.

 

The wet sediment basin volume was 1.65 higher using MSMA (2011) compared to MSMA (2000).
Detention Basin Change in design storm and temporal pattern For Kuala Lumpur, the storm intensity increases by up to 1.26 times and the hydrograph peak computed using the Time-Area Method increases by up to 1.27 times between MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011), while the increase in the storage volume of a detention basin is about 1.30 times.

 

 

 

 

 

1.    Introduction

1.1 Evolution of Drainage Guidelines in Malaysia

Before 2001, engineers in Malaysia applied the “Planning and Design Procedure No. 1” (DID, 1975) published by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) in 1975 for their drainage design. This is a relatively simple document to use- with only 242 pages covering ten chapters.

But this has changed with the introduction of the Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia” (Manual Saliran Mesra Alam Malaysia) in 2000 (DID, 2000- referred to herein after as MSMA, 2000). The new Manual is much more thorough in its coverage of subject matters compared to the old procedure. It contains 48 chapters spanning more than 1,100 pages.

In 2011, the Department published an updated version of the same manual, known as MSMA 2nd Edition (DID, 2011- referred to herein after as MSMA, 2011). This document was launched by the Department in early 2012 and enforced on 1 July, 2012. The document is roughly half the thickness of the first edition. There are many significant changes in computational procedures between the two editions of MSMA (2000, 2011).

1.2 Overall Changes in MSMA (2011) from MSMA (2000)

The overall layout of MSMA (2011) has changed from MSMA (2000) as follows:

  • The number of chapters has reduced from 48 in the first edition to 20 in the second edition.
  • The number of pages has reduced by roughly half.
  • The topics are now more “focused” compared to the previous edition with chapters named after specific drainage elements such as detention pond and On-Site Detention.
  • New chapters namely, on “Rainwater Harvesting” and “Pavement Drainage” are included.

The content of the 20 chapters are as follows:

 

  • Chapter 1- Design Acceptance Criteria
  • Chapter 2- Quantity Design Fundamental
  • Chapter 3- Quality Design Fundamentals
  • Chapter 4- Roof and Property Drainage
  • Chapter 5- On-Site Detention
  • Chapter 6- Rainwater Harvesting
  • Chapter 7- Detention Pond
  • Chapter 8- Infiltration Facilities
  • Chapter 9- Bioretention System
  • Chapter 10- Gross Pollutant Traps
  • Chapter 11- Water Quality Ponds and Wetlands
  • Chapter 12- Erosion and Sediment Control
  • Chapter 13- Pavement Drainage
  • Chapter 14- Drains and Swales
  • Chapter 15- Pipe Drain
  • Chapter 16- Engineered Channel
  • Chapter 17- Bioengineered Channel
  • Chapter 18- Culvert
  • Chapter 19- Pump and Tidal Gate
  • Chapter 20- Hydraulic Structures

Table 1.1 is a comparison of the various chapters in MSMA (2000, 2011) given by DID.

Table 1.1 Comparison of Chapters in MSMA (2000, 2011) (After DID Seminar Paper, 2012)

MSMA (2000) MSMA (2011)
Part A: Introduction  
Chapter 1: Malaysian Perspective Chapter 1- Design Acceptance Criteria
Chapter 2: Environment Processes Chapter 1- Design Acceptance Criteria
Chapter 3: Stormwater Management Chapter 1- Design Acceptance Criteria
Part B : Administration  
Chapter 4: Design Acceptance Criteria Chapter 1- Design Acceptance Criteria
Chapter 5: Institutional and Legal Framework Chapter 1- Design Acceptance Criteria
Chapter 6: Authority Requirement and Documentation Chapter 1- Design Acceptance Criteria
Part C : Planning  
Chapter 7: Planning Framework Chapter 1- Design Acceptance Criteria
Chapter 8: Strategic Planning Chapter 1- Design Acceptance Criteria
Chapter 9: Master Planning Chapter 1- Design Acceptance Criteria
Chapter 10: Choice of Management Chapter 1- Design Acceptance Criteria
Part D : Hydrology and Hydraulics  
Chapter 11: Hydrologic Design Concepts Chapter 2- Quantity Design Fundamental
Chapter 12: Hydraulic Fundamentals Chapter 2- Quantity Design Fundamental
Chapter 13: Design Rainfall Chapter 2- Quantity Design Fundamental
Chapter 14: Flow Estimation and Routing Chapter 2- Quantity Design Fundamental
Chapter 15: Pollutant Estimation, Transport and Retention Chapter 3- Quality Design Fundamentals
Chapter 16: Stormwater System Design Chapter 2- Quantity Design Fundamental
Chapter 17: Computer Models and Softwares Chapter 2- Quantity Design Fundamental
Part E : Runoff Quantity Control  
Chapter 18: Principle of Quantity Control Chapter 5- On-Site Detention/Chapter 7- Detention Pond
Chapter 19: On-site Detention Chapter 5- On-Site Detention
Chapter 20: Community and Regional Detention Chapter 7- Detention Pond
Chapter 21: On-site and Community Retention Chapter 8- Infiltration Facilities
Chapter 22: Regional Retention Chapter 8- Infiltration Facilities
Nil Chapter 6- Rainwater Harvesting
Part F : Runoff Conveyance  
Chapter 23: Roof and Property Drainage Chapter 4- Roof and Property Drainage
Chapter 24: Stormwater Inlets Chapter 13- Pavement Drainage
Chapter 25: Pipe Drains Chapter 15- Pipe Drain
Chapter 26: Open Drains Chapter 14- Drains and Swales
Chapter 27: Culvert Chapter 18- Culvert
Chapter 28: Engineered Waterways Chapter 16- Engineered Channel
Chapter 29: Hydraulic Structures Chapter 20- Hydraulic Structures
Part G : Post Construction Runoff Quality Controls  
Chapter 30: Stormwater Quality Monitoring Chapter 3- Quality Design Fundamentals
Chapter 31: Filtration Chapter 9- Bioretention System
Chapter 32: Infiltration Chapter 8- Infiltration Facilities
Chapter 33: Oil Separators Chapter 10- Gross Pollutant Traps
Chapter 34: Gross Pollutant Traps Chapter 10- Gross Pollutant Traps
Chapter 35: Constructed Ponds and Wetlands Chapter 11- Water Quality Ponds and Wetlands
Chapter 36: Housekeeping Practices Nil
Chapter 37: Community Education Nil
Part H : Construction Runoff Quality Controls  
Chapter 38: Action to Control Erosion and Sediment Chapter 12- Erosion and Sediment Control
Chapter 39: Erosion and Sediment Control Measures Chapter 12- Erosion and Sediment Control
Chapter 40: Contractor Activity Control Measures Chapter 12- Erosion and Sediment Control
Chapter 41: Erosion and Sediment Control Plans Chapter 12- Erosion and Sediment Control
Part I : Special Application  
Chapter 42: Landscaping Annex 1: Ecological Plants
Chapter 43: Riparian Vegetation and Watercourse Management Chapter 17- Bioengineered Channel
Chapter 44: Subsoil Drainage Nil
Chapter 45: Pumped Drainage Chapter 19- Pump and Tidal Gate
Chapter 46: Lowland, Tidal and Small Island Drainage Nil
Chapter 47: Hillside Drainage Nil
Chapter 48: Wet Weather Wastewater Overflows Nil
Nil Annex 2: Maintenance
Nil Annex 3: IDF Curves

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.    Changes in the Design ARI.

The design storm ARI is covered in Chapter 4 of the first edition and Chapter 1 of the second edition.

2.1 Major and Minor Design ARI (MSMA, 2000)

The design storm ARI’s for MSMA (2000) is covered in

Table 2.1.

2.2 Major and Minor Design ARI (MSMA, 2011)

The design storm ARI’s for MSMA (2011) is covered in Table 2.2.

2.3 Comparison

The changes in major/minor design storm ARI. for various types of development are evaluated by comparing

Table 2.1 and Table 2.2 as follows:

 

  1. For Major System, the ARI. for most types of development is fixed at 100 year ARI. in MSMA (2011), unlike MSMA (2000) where the ARI. is defined as “up to 100 year” for all development types- subject to cost benefit analysis by the engineer.
  2. For residential development, the types of development have been combined into two types namely, bungalow/Semi-D and link houses/apartment with higher ARI. of 5 and 10 years for minor systems compared to 2, 5 and 10, respectively, for low, medium and high density residential classifications in the first edition. For major system, the ARI. has increased to mostly 100 years compared with “up to 100 years” in the first edition.
  3. In the first edition, for commercial, business and industrial are grouped according to whether these are located in CBD or non-CBD areas. But in the second edition, these are divided into: commercial and business centers, industry, and institutional building/complex with ARI. of 10 for minor system compared to 5 for non-CBD in the first edition. For major system, the ARI. is fixed at 100 years in the Second edition compared to “up to 100” in the first edition.
  4. The term “open space” in the first edition has been replaced by “sport fields” in the second edition. The ARI. for minor system is now 2 years compared to 1 year previously, while the ARI. for major system has reduced to 20 years from “up to 100 years” previously. Interestingly, this is the only reduction in ARI. in the second edition.
  5. There is a new category called “infrastructure/utility” in the new publication with ARI. of 5 and 100 years for minor and major systems, respectively.

2.4 Summary of Changes

In summary, the major changes are as follows:

 

  1. For Major Systems, the ARI. for most types of development is fixed at 100 year ARI. in MSMA (2011) from “up to 100 year” in MSMA (2000).
  2. MSMA (2011) has eliminated the subjectivity in the determination of ARI for major system via cost benefit analysis by the engineer.
  3. For minor systems, the ARI has increased from 2 to 5 years to 10 years for low and medium density residential developments and commercial, business and industrial development in non-CBD areas.
  4. For parks and sport fields, the ARI for major system has reduced to 20 years from “up to 100 years” previously. This reflects D.I.D’s effort in promoting the use of these amenities for storage.
  5. The effect of changes in design ARI on storm intensities is covered in the following case study.

 

Table 2.1 Design Storm ARIs for Urban Stormwater System Adoption (MSMA, 2000)

Type of Development Average Recurrence interval (ARI) of Design Storm (Year)
Quantity Quality
Minor System Major System  
Open Space, Parks and Agricultural Land in urban areas 1 Up to 100 3 month ARI. (for all types of development)
Residential:    
–       Low density 2 Up to 100
–       Medium density 5 Up to 100
–       High density 10 Up to 100
Commercial, Business and Industrial- Other than CBD 5 Up to 100
Commercial, Business, Industrial in Central Business District (CBD) areas of Large Cities 10 Up to 100

Source: Table 4.1 of MSMA (2000)

 

Table 2.2 Design Storm ARI Adoption (MSMA, 2011)

Type of Development Minimum Average Recurrence interval (ARI)
of Design Storm (Year)
Residential Minor System Major System
–       Bungalow and Semi-D 5 50
–       Link Houses/Apartment 10 100
Commercial and Business Centers 10 100
Industry 10 100
Sport Fields, Parks and Agricultural Land 2 20
Infrastructure/utility 5 100
Institutional Building/Complex 10 100

Source: Table 1.1 of MSMA (2011)

 

2.5 Case Study on Design ARI

In this case study, the changes in the design ARI. on rainfall intensities is assessed. Using the design storm ARI. for the old and new procedures, the rainfall intensities for both minor and major systems are compared. The quantum of increase is assessed. The location of the study is in Sg. Batu, Kuala Lumpur.

2.5.1       Methodology

  1. The ARI for three types of landuses: park, medium density residential and commercial area were determined based on MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011) as shown in Table 3 and plotted in Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2, respectively, for minor and major systems.
  2. For park, the ARI have changed from 1 and <100 for minor and major systems to 2 and 20 years for minor and major systems, respectively.
  3. For medium density residential and commercial area, the ARI have increased from 5 and <100 for minor and major systems to 10 and 100 years for minor and major systems, respectively.
  4. The ARI for <100 year for MSMA (2000) is assumed to be 50 year.
  5. The minor and major storm intensities for MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011) computed and summarized as shown in Table 3.

2.5.2       Evaluation

 

To compare the increase in storm intensity, a ratio R is defined as follows:

where

i2 is the storm intensity based on MSMA (2011)

i1 is the storm intensity based on MSMA (2000)

 

The ratio R is tabulated as shown in the table.

  1. The ratio R has increased by up to 110% for minor system and up to 103% for major system for the first type of landuse i.e., park. This increase in design storm intensity was due to higher IDF data in MSMA (2011), which negates the effect of the reduction of ARI in the new guideline to 20 year.
  2. For the second and third types of landuses i.e., medium density residential and commercial and city area, the ratio R has increased up to 122% for minor system for an ARI increase from 5 to 10 years, and up to 133% for major system for an ARI increase from 50 year to 100 years.
  3. It is emphasised that the changes in the storm intensity is not only due to changes in the ARI but also the higher IDF data in MSMA (2011). For changes in IDF data between MSMA (2000) and (2011), please refer to the case study on Design Storm.
  4. Due to the linear nature of the discharge and storm intensity in the Rational Method, it is expected the same proportional increase in the design discharge is observed.
  5. This case study only serves to determine the changes in storm intensities with changes in ARI. It is not suggesting that all medium density residential and commercial and city areas are currently designed for a 50 years ARI for major system.

 

Table 2.3 Effect of Changes in ARI for Various Landuses on the Storm Intensity for Major and Minor System for Sg Batu, Kuala Lumpur

Landuse ARI (Minor) ARI (Major) ARI (Minor) ARI (Major) i

(Minor)

i

(Major)

i

(Minor)

i

(Major)

R (Minor) R (Major)
  MSMA (2000) MSMA (2011) MSMA (2000) MSMA (2011)    
Park

 

1 <100 2 20 64.8 100.5 71.2 103.4 1.10 1.03
Medium Density Residential 5 <100 10 100 75.7 100.5 92.4 134.1 1.22 1.33
Commercial and City Area 5 <100 10 100 75.7 100.5 92.4 134.1 1.22 1.33

Note1: i in mm/hr for duration of 60 minutes
Note 2: ARI for <100 year is assumed to be 50 year

 

 

Figure 2.1 Effect of Changes in ARI for Various Landuses on the Storm Intensity for Minor System for Sg. Batu, Kuala Lumpur

 

Figure 2.2 Effect of Changes in ARI for Various Landuses on the Storm Intensity for Major System for Sg. Batu, Kuala Lumpur

 

 

3.    Changes in Design Storm, Temporal Pattern and Areal Reduction Factor

3.1 Design Storm Computation

3.1.1       Evolution of Methods of Computation for Design Storm

With the publication of second edition of MSMA, Chapter 2 of MSMA (2011) now supersedes Chapter 13 of MSMA (2000).

In this section, the theories of design storm in both editions of MSMA (2000 and 2011) are covered.

3.1.2    Derivation of IDF Curves using MSMA (2000)

In the first edition, the following polynomial equation (Equation 13.2 in MSMA, 2000) is fitted to the published IDF curves for the 35 major urban centres in Malaysia:

(Equation 3.1)

where

RIt  is the average rainfall intensity (mm/hr) for ARI R and duration t

R   is the average return interval (years)

t    is the duration (minutes)

a to d are fitting constants dependent on ARI.

 

The fitted coefficients for the IDF curves for all the major cities are given in Appendix 13.A of MSMA (2000). Equation 3.1 is strictly applicable to rainfall duration of 6 hours or less.

 

For short duration of less than 30 minutes in MSMA (2000), the intensities are computed as follows:

The design rainfall depth Pd for a short duration d (min) is given by:

(Equation 3.2)

where

P30 and P60 are the 30 min and 60 min rainfall depths, respectively, obtained from the published polynomial curves.

FD is the adjustment factor for storm duration based on Table 13.3 and Figure 13.3 of MSMA (2000).

 

3.1.3       Derivation of IDF Curves using MSMA (2011)

In MSMA (2011) (Equation 2.2), the following empirical equation was fitted to the IDF data for 135 major urban centres in Malaysia:

(Equation 3.3)

where

i  is the Average rainfall intensity (mm/hr)

T is the Average return interval (years) for ARI of between 0.5 and 12 months and 2 and 100 years.

d is the Storm duration (hours) where d is between 0.0833 and 72 hours
, ?, ? and ? are the fitting constants dependent on the raingauge location. Refer Table 2.B1 in Appendix 2.B of MSMA (2011).

 

3.1.4       Comparison

The following changes were noted:

  1. In the Second Edition, the formula for computing the IDF data has changed from a polynomial based formula to an empirical equation.
  2. The storm intensities have changed due to the changes in the formula used.
  3. In the first edition, the data used were up to about 1983 or 1990. For instance, the data used for the Federal Territory was only up to 1983 in MSMA (2000). However, in the Second Edition, the data used were more up-to-date.
  4. In the first edition, the IDF data were available only for 35 major urban centers. In the second edition, however, this has been increased to 135 major urban centers in Malaysia.
  5. In MSMA (2000) the IDF formula is applicable for storm duration of 30 minutes to 6 hours, whereas in MSMA (2011), the formula is applicable between 5 min and 72 hours. In MSMA (2000), for duration of less than 30 minutes, a short duration formula is required.
  6. In MSMA (2000) the storm ARI is available for 2 to 100 years, whereas in MSMA (2011), it is available for 2 to 100 years, plus 0.5 to 12 months.
  7. IDF curves were plotted in Annex 3 of MSMA (2011) for the 135 major urban centers for ARI. from 2 to 100 years and duration of 5 min to 72 hours. However, these were not provided for ARI of between 0.5 to 12 months. So it is necessary to compute them.
  8. In MSMA (2000) the whole of Kuala Lumpur is represented by one IDF curve. But in MSMA (2011), it involves 14 stations covering different parts of Kuala Lumpur. The same is noted for the stations in all states. For example, in Selangor there are now ten stations.
  9. MSMA (2011) covers the IDF data of 12 states and federal territory in Peninsular Malaysia. Sabah and Sarawak are not covered. In MSMA (2000), the two East Malaysian states are covered.

3.1.5       Evaluation

  1. Overall, the quality of the storm data in MSMA (2011) is better as the new data is more up-to-date.
  2. The IDF data in MSMA (2011) covers longer storm durations from 5 minutes to 72 hours, and the lower range ARI of 0.5 to 12 months.
  3. There are now 135 stations in MSMA (2011) compared to only 35 previously.
  4. IDF curves are plotted in Annex 3 of MSMA (2011) for 135 major urban centres.
  5. No IDF data is provided for East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak.
  6. The changes in the IDF data is expected to change the magnitudes of design storm.
  7. The magnitude of changes in the design rainfall is covered in the following case study.

3.2 Storm Temporal Pattern

This is covered in Chapter 13 of the first edition and Chapter 2 of the second edition.

 

3.2.1       Temporal Pattern in MSMA (2000)

In MSMA (2000), the temporal pattern is covered in Section 13.3 of Chapter 13.

 

Table 3.1 (Table 13.4 of MSMA, 2000) gives the recommended time steps for durations of up to 360 minutes. Appendix 13.B gives the design temporal patterns for East and West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

 

For east Malaysia, it recommends the use of temporal patterns for East Coast of Peninsula.
Table 3.1 Standard Durations for Urban Stormwater Drainage

Standard Duration (minutes) No. of Time Intervals Time Interval (minutes)
10 2 5
15 3 5
30 6 5
60 12 5
120 8 15
180 6 30
360 6 60

 

 

3.2.2       Temporal Pattern in MSMA (2011)

In MSMA (2011), the temporal patterns to be used for a set of durations are given in Appendix 2.C for the following five regions:

 

  • Region 1- Terengganu and Kelantan
  • Region 2- Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka, Selangor and Pahang
  • Region 3- Perak, Kedah, Pulau Pinang and Perlis
  • Region 4- Mountainous Area
  • Region 5- Urban Area (Kuala Lumpur)

 

Table 3.2 (Table 2.4 of MSMA, 2011) provides the recommended time intervals for the above design rainfall temporal pattern.

 

 

Table 3.2 Recommended Intervals for Design Rainfall Temporal Pattern (Table 2.4 in MSMA, 2011)

Storm Duration (minutes) Time Interval (minutes)
< 60 5
60-120 10
121-360 15
>360 30

3.2.3       Evaluation

  • MSMA (2011) provides the temporal pattern for storm duration of up to 72 hour compared to MSMA (2000) at only 6 hour.
  • MSMA (2000) divides the temporal pattern for east and west cost of Peninsular Malaysia. MSMA (2011), on the other hand, divides the whole peninsula into five regions as described above.
  • In MSMA (2011), no mention of temporal pattern for East Malaysia- but in MSMA (2000), it is recommended that the temporal pattern for East Coast of Peninsula be used for Sabah and Sarawak.
  • MSMA (2011) recommends smaller time intervals.

3.3 Areal Reduction Factor

Areal reduction factor (ARF) is given in Table 13.1 of MSMA (2000) but not in MSMA (2011). Literature in hydrology state that ARF should be applied to convert point intensity to catchment average and it is not correct to ignore ARF for larger catchments. Hence the following procedure as given in MSMA (2000) should be applied for MSMA (2011):

 

The IDF curves give the rainfall intensity at a point. For larger catchment, the uneven spatial distribution of a storm is important.

 

Areal reduction factors are applied to design point rainfall intensities to account for the fact that it is not likely that rainfall will occur at the same intensity over the entire catchment area of a storm.

 

The point estimates of design storms are adjusted for the catchment area by following the procedure recommended in HP1 (DID, 1982), which is similar to the United States Weather Bureau’s method.

 

The design rainfall is calculated from the point rainfall intensity as follows (Equation 13.1 in MSMA, 2000):

(Equation 3.4)

where

F is the areal reduction factor which is expressed as a factor less than 1.0.

Ic is the average rainfall over the catchment, and

Ip is the point rainfall intensity.

 

The values of F for catchment areas of up to 200 km2 and durations of up to 24 hours are given in Table 3.3 and Figure 3.1 below (Table 13.1 and Figure 13.1 of MSMA 2000, respectively). Note that the range of applicability is limited to catchment areas of up to 200 km2 only.

Table 3.3 Areal Reduction Factors

Figure 3.1 Plot of Areal Reduction Factors

3.4             Case Study on Design Storm

The design storm estimates are compared using the IDF formulas from the first and second edition for a major urban center in Malaysia. The objective is to determine the changes in design rainfall due to differences in the IDF formulas.

The urban center selected in the case study is Kuala Lumpur.

 

3.4.1       Methodology

  1. The IDF curves were computed using Equation 3.1 for Kuala Lumpur for duration of more than 30 minutes as tabulated in Table 4 and plotted as shown in Figure 3.2.
  2. For duration of less than 30 minutes, the short duration curve of Equation 3.2 was applied. The results for 5 and 15 minutes are tabulated as shown in Table 5 and Table 3.6, respectively.
  3. Equation 3.3 was applied to the 14 stations in Kuala Lumpur (Table 2.B1) (see Table 9). The results for Station No. 3116004 was tabulated as shown in Table 3.7 and plotted as shown in Figure 3.3 for ARI of 2 to 100 years and 0.5 to 12 months.
  4. Table 8 is a summary of the storm intensities for ARI of 100 years for Kuala Lumpur based on MSMA (2000) and the 14 stations in MSMA (2011).
  5. Figure 4 to Figure 3.9 are plots of the IDF data for MSMA (2000) and the 14 stations in MSMA (2011) for ARI of 100, 50, 20, 10, 5 and 2, respectively. It shows the scattering of values above and below the MSMA (2000) curve.

 

3.4.2       Evaluation

The results from above are evaluated as follows:

  • Lower half of Table 8 summarises the ratios of the design storms for MSMA (2011) to MSMA (2000) for ARI of 100 years.
  • It is noted the design storms estimated using MSMA (2011) scattered on both sides of the IDF curve using MSMA (2000).
  • It can be seen that for shorter durations, the design storms for MSMA (2011) can be 26% (Station 13) higher than the estimate based on MSMA (2000).
  • For long duration of say 72 hours, the reverse is true: the MSMA (2011) estimates can be up to 36% (Station 6) lower than those using MSMA (2000).
  • For medium durations of between 15 to 700 min, the estimates using MSMA (2011) were mostly higher than those estimated using MSMA (2000). In the study, out of 14 stations, 10 of them (or 71%) were higher than the MSMA (2000) curve, while the remaining 4 stations (or 29%) were lower than the first edition estimates.
  • It is concluded that the design storms estimated based on MSMA (2011) for Kuala Lumpur can be up to about 26% higher than MSMA (2000) for duration below 700 minutes, for 71% of the stations.
  • Each state has about a dozen stations with different IDF constants as shown in Appendix 2.B. There is a need to know which of the dozen or so stations to use in your design. In Kuala Lumpur, for instance, there are 14 stations- but none of the station names appeared familiar.
  • MSMA (2011) does not cover Sabah and Sarawak like in MSMA (2000).


Table 3.4  IDF for Kuala Lumpur (MSMA 2000)

Table 3.5 Short Duration IDF for Kuala Lumpur (Duration= 5 min) (MSMA 2000)

Table 3.6 Short Duration IDF for Kuala Lumpur (Duration= 15 min) (MSMA 2000)

 

 

Table 3.7 IDF Data for Kuala Lumpur (Station No. 3116004) (MSMA 2011)
Table 3.8 Summary of IDF Data for Kuala Lumpur (MSMA, 2000) and 14 Stations in Kuala Lumpur (MSMA 2011) for ARI of 100 YR

  1. Station 0 denotes the Kuala Lumpur station used in MSMA (2011). For Stations 1 to 14, refer to Table 3.9 for Station ID and Name

 

.

Table 3.9 Summary of Stations in Kuala Lumpur (After Table 2.B1 in MSMA, 2011)

Station No. Station ID Station Name
1 3015001 Puchong Drop, Kuala Lumpur
2 3116003 Ibu Pejabat JPS
3 3116004 Ibu Pejabat JPS1
4 3116005 SK Taman Maluri
5 3116006 Ladang Edinburgh
6 3216001 Kg. Sg. Tua
7 3216004 SK Jenis Keb, Kepong
8 3217001 Ibu Bek. KM16, Gombak
9 3217002 Emp Genting Kelang
10 3217003 Ibu Bek. KM11, Gombak
11 3217004 Kg. Kuala Seleh, H. Klg
12 3217005 Kg. Kerdas, Gombak
13 3317001 Air Terjun, Sg Batu
14 3317004 Genting Sempah

 


Figure 3.2 IDF for Kuala Lumpur (MSMA 2000)

Figure 3.3 IDF For Kuala Lumpur (MSMA 2011) (Station No. 3116004)

 

Figure 3.4 Comparison of Estimated Rainfall Intensity Frequency Duration Curves for Kuala Lumpur between MSMA 2000 & 2011 (ARI. =100 YR)

Figure 3.5 Comparison of Estimated Rainfall Intensity Frequency Duration Curves for Kuala Lumpur between MSMA 2000 & 2011 (ARI. =50 YR)

Figure 3.6 Comparison of Estimated Rainfall Intensity Frequency Duration Curves for Kuala Lumpur between MSMA 2000 & 2011 (ARI. =20 YR)

Figure 3.7 Comparison of Estimated Rainfall Intensity Frequency Duration Curves for Kuala Lumpur between MSMA 2000 & 2011 (ARI. =10 YR)

Figure 3.8 Comparison of Estimated Rainfall Intensity Frequency Duration Curves for Kuala Lumpur between MSMA 2000 & 2011 (ARI. =5 YR)

Figure 3.9 Comparison of Estimated Rainfall Intensity Frequency Duration Curves for Kuala Lumpur between MSMA 2000 & 2011 (ARI. =2 YR)

 

 

4.    Changes in the Rational Method

Rational Method is covered in Chapter 14 of the first edition and Chapter 2 of the second edition.

 

4.1             Rational Method in MSMA (2000)

MSMA relates the peak discharge to the rainfall intensity and catchment area via the Rational Method:

(Equation 4.1)

where

Qy        is the y year ARI peak discharge (m3/s)

C         is the dimensionless runoff coefficient

yIt         is the average intensity of the design rainstorm of duration equal to the time of concentration tc and of ARI of y year (mm/hr)

A          is the drainage area (ha)

 

Recommended values of C may be obtained from Design Chart 14.3 for urban areas and Design Chart 14.4 of MSMA (2000) for rural areas.

 

The steps of computation are shown in Figure 4.1.

 

 

 

Figure 4.1 Steps of Computation in the Rational Method in MSMA (2000)

 

 

4.2             Rational Method in MSMA (2011)

In MSMA (2011), the peak discharge is related to the rainfall intensity and catchment area via the Rational Method:

(Equation 4.2)

where

Q is the peak flow (m3/s)

C is the runoff coefficient given in Table 4.1 (Table 2.5 of MSMA, 2011).

I is the average rainfall intensity (mm/hr)

A is the drainage area (ha)

 

The steps of computation are shown in Figure 4.2.

 

4.3             Comparison

The changes in design discharge using the Rational Method are as follows:

 

  1. The major change in the Rational Method is the coefficient of runoff. In the second edition, it is read from a design chart and varies according to the types of landuse, the rainfall intensities and whether it is urban or rural catchments. But in the second edition, it is fixed according to the landuse- like in the P&DP No. 1 (DID, 1975), as shown in Table 1 (Table 2.5 of MSMA, 2011).
  2. There is no change in the size of catchment area where the Rational Method can be applied. Both editions specify that the Rational Method should not be used for catchment area greater than 80 ha.
  3. The magnitude of changes in the design discharge is covered in the following case study.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4.2 Steps of Computation in the Rational Method in MSMA (2011)

 
 

Table 4.1 Recommended Runoff Coefficients for Various Landuses (DID, 1980; Chow et al., 1988; QUDM, 2007 and Darwin Harbour, 2009) (After Table 2.5 of MSMA, 2011)

Landuse Runoff Coefficient (C)
For Minor System
(?10 year ARI)
For Major System
(>10 year ARI)
Residential

·         Bungalow

·         Semi-detached Bungalow

·         Link and Terrance House

·         Flat and Apartment

·         Condominium

 

0.65
0.70
0.80
0.80
0.75

 

0.70
0.75
0.90
0.85
0.80

Commercial and Business Centres 0.90 0.95
Industrial 0.90 0.95
Sport Fields, Park and Agriculture 0.30 0.40
Open Spaces

·         Bare Soil (No Cover)

·         Grass Cover

·         Bush Cover

·         Forest Cover

 

0.50
0.40
0.35
0.30

 

0.60
0.50
0.45
0.40

Roads and Highways 0.95 0.95
Water Body (Pond)

·         Detention Pond (with outlet)

·         Retention Pond (no outlet)

 

0.95
0.00

 

0.95
0.00

Note: The runoff coefficients in this table are given as a guide for designers. The near-field runoff coefficient for any single or mixed landuse should be determined based on the imperviousness of the area.

 

4.4             Case Study on Rational Method

The Rational Method for the second edition has changed from the first edition. For comparison, the method is applied to a typical catchment and the results compared. The changes in the design discharge due to changes in the runoff coefficient C are assessed.

 

In this case study, the Rational Methods in both editions of MSMA are applied to compute the peak discharge for a major system in the study area.

 

Figure 4.3 shows a map of the catchment area. The study area is located in Sg. Batu, Kuala Lumpur.

 

The catchment data are as follows:

  • Area= 30 hectares.
  • Length of Overland flow= 300 m
  • Slope= 0.3%, paved surface.
  • Length of Open Drain= 600 m

 

Three types of landuses were studied:

  • Park
  • Semi-D Houses
  • Commercial and city area

 

4.4.1       Rational Method (MSMA, 2000)

The three types of landuses were studied according to Table 2.1 (Table 4.1 of MSMA, 2000):

  • Park, ARI= 20 years
  • Semi-D Houses, ARI= 50 years
  • Commercial and city area, ARI= 100 years

 

Step 1- Calculate Tc

Overland flow time (To) is estimated using Friend’s Formula:

where

n= 0.011 from (Table 14.2 of MSMA, 2000) for paved surface

S= 0.3%

L (Overland sheet flow path length in m) = 300 m.

 

Applying the Friend’s Formula, To= 10 min.

 

Average velocity in the open drain is assessed using Manning’s Equation where V is found to be 1 m/s.

 

Td=L/V= 600/1= 600 s= 10 min.

 

Hence, Tc= To + Td = 10+10 = 20 min

 

Step 2- Calculate I

The values of the coefficients for a, b, c and d in (Table 13.A1 of MSMA, 2000) for ARI of 100 years for Kuala Lumpur are as follows:

 

a= 5.0064, b= 0.8709, c= -0.3070, d= 0.0186

 

Substituting the above coefficients into:

For t= 30 min, 5I30= 172.2 mm/hr

For t= 60 min, 5I60= 110.2 mm/hr

 

Convert to rainfall depths,

 

100P30= 172.2/2 = 86.12 mm

100P60= 110.2/1 = 110.2 mm

Step 3- Calculate C

According to MSMA (2000), the design rainfall depth Pd for a short duration d (min) is given by:

 

 

where

P30 and P60 are the 30 min and 60 min rainfall depths, respectively, obtained from the published polynomial curves.

FD is the adjustment factor for storm duration based on Table 13.3 of MSMA (2000).

 

From Figure 13.3 (MSMA, 2000)  2P24h= 100 for Kuala Lumpur. From Table 13.3 (MSMA, 2000) for a duration of 20 min, the FD=0.47.

 

Hence 100P20= 86.12-0.47*(110.2-86.12)= 74.8 mm

Therefore 100I20= 224.3 mm/hr

 

50I20= 203.6 mm/hr

20I20= 185.2 mm/hr

 

The C is determined from Design Chart 14.3 (MSMA, 2000), for the following landuses:

  • Park (Curve No. 7), C=0.61
  • Semi-D Houses (Curve No. 3), C=0.9
  • Commercial and city area (Curve No. 2), C=0.905

 

Step 4- Calculate Qp

The peak discharge for ARI=100 years is computed using the Rational Method:

 

The peak discharges are determined for the three types of landuses:

 

Park (Curve No. 7),  ARI= 20 years

Qp= 0.61*185.2*30/360 = 9.4 m3/s

 

Semi-D Houses (Curve No. 3), ARI= 50 years

Qp= 0.9*203.6*30/360 = 15.3 m3/s

 

Commercial and city area (Curve No. 2), ARI= 100 years

Qp= 0.905*224.3*30/360 = 16.9 m3/s

 

The computations were carried out on a spreadsheet and tabulated as shown in Table 4.2.

 

4.4.2       Rational Method (MSMA, 2011)

The three types of landuses were studied according to Table 1.1 of MSMA (2011):

  • Park, ARI= 20 years
  • Semi-D Houses, ARI= 50 years
  • Commercial and city area, ARI= 100 years

 

The catchment data are the same as the previous case study using MSMA (2000).

 

Step 1- Calculate Tc

The storm duration is the same as the time of concentration of 20 min as determined earlier.

 

Step 2- Calculate I

For the study area of Sg. Batu, the following fitting constants were taken from Table 2.B1 of MSMA (2011):

, ?, ? and ?= 72.992, 0.162, 0.171 and 0.871.

Substituting the above into the following equation:

For ARI= 50 years, i= 249.7 mm/hr

For ARI= 20 years, i= 215.3 mm/hr

 

Step 3- Calculate C

The C is determined from Table 3.2 of MSMA (2011) for the following landuses:

 

  • Park, C=0.4
  • Semi-D Houses, C=0.75
  • Commercial and city area, C=0.95

 

Step 4- Calculate Qp

The peak discharges are determined for the following three types of landuses:

 

For Park, ARI= 20 years

Qp= 0.4*215.3*30/360 =7.2 m3/s

For Semi-D Houses, ARI= 50 years

Qp= 0.75*249.7*30/360 = 15.6 m3/s

For Commercial and city area, ARI= 100 years

Qp= 0.95*279.4*30/360 = 22.1 m3/s

The computations were carried out on a spreadsheet and tabulated as shown in Table 4.3.

 

 

4.5             Evaluation

Table 4.3 is a summary of the peak discharges computed using MSMA (2000) and (2011).

 

To find out the magnitude of increase in discharge, we define a ratio R:

where

A= Qp2 which is the peak discharge based on MSMA (2011)

B= Qp1 which is the peak discharge based on MSMA (2000)

 

The ratio R is tabulated as shown in the last column of the table.

 

It can be seen that:

  1. For park, the ratio R is 0.76 indicating that the peak discharge from MSMA (2011) is lower than the peak discharge from MSMA (2000). This is due principally to the lower C of 0.4 in MSMA (2011) compared to a higher C of 0.61 in MSMA (2000). The lower C in MSMA (2011) reflects DID’s effort in promoting more storage in parks.
  2. For Semi-D houses, the ratio R is 1.02 indicating that the peak discharge from MSMA (2011) is about 2% higher than the peak discharge from MSMA (2000). The Q has increased from 15.3 to 15.6 m3/s.The C has reduced from 0.9 to 0.75 but the i has increased from 203.6 mm/hr to 249.7. The reduction in C is only for Semi-D houses, while the increase in storm intensity is generally associated with MSMA (2011). In this case, the effect of the increasing storm intensity is more prominent, thus giving a higher peak discharge.
  3. For commercial and city area, the ratio R is 1.31 indicating that the peak discharge from MSMA (2011) is about 31% higher than the peak discharge from MSMA (2000). The Q has increased from 16.9 to 22.1 m3/s. The C has increased from 0.905 to 0.95 while the storm intensity has increased from 224.3 mm/hr to 279.4. The increase in C for commercial and city area and storm intensity in MSMA (2011) has attributed to a significantly higher peak discharge.
  4. In conclusion, the peak discharge computed using the Rational Method in MSMA (2011) is up to 31% higher than that in MSMA (2000). This increase is caused principally by the higher storm intensity in MSMA (2011), and by the higher C for commercial and city area in MSMA (2011).
  5. The magnitude of increase in peak discharge associated with the Rational Method in MSMA (2011) varies depending on the station used for the IDF computation. MSMA (2011) has provided 14 stations with different IDF data for Kuala Lumpur. In the case study for storm, it was found that 71% of these stations have higher storm intensities under MSMA (2011).
  6. In general, it is concluded that 71% of the stations in Kuala Lumpur will have up to 26% higher storm intensity and up to 31% higher peak discharges for commercial and city area.

 

 

Figure 4.3 Catchment Map

 

 

 

Table 4.2 Computation of Peak Discharges using the Rational Method in MSMA (2000)

 

 

Table 4.3 Computation of Peak Discharges using the Rational Method in MSMA (2011)

 

Table 4.4  Comparison of Peak Discharges using the Rational Method in MSMA (2000, 2011)

 

5.    Changes in the Time-Area Method

Time-Area Method is covered in Chapter 14 of the first edition and Chapter 2 of the second edition.

 

5.1             Time-Area Method in MSMA (2000)

Table 5.1 (Table 14.4 in MSMA, 2000) gives the recommended loss models for used in the Time-Area Method.

 

Table 5.1 Recommended Loss Models and Values for Hydrograph (Table 14.4 in MSMA, 2000)

5.2             Time-Area Method in MSMA (2011)

Table 5.2 (Table 2.6 in MSMA, 2011) gives the recommended loss models for used in the Time-Area Method in MSMA (2011).

 

Table 5.2 Recommended Loss Values for Rainfall Excess Estimation (Chow et al., 1988) (Table 2.6 in MSMA, 2011)

Catchment Condition

 

Initial loss (mm) Continuous Loss (mm/hr)
Impervious

 

1.5 0
Pervious 10 Sandy Soil: 10-25 mm/hr

Loam Soil: 3-10 mm/hr

Clay Soil: 0.5-3 mm/hr

 

 

5.3             Comparison

  1. In MSMA (2011), the number of loss models has reduced. The Initial Loss-Proportional Loss Model and the Horton Model have been removed.
  2. Instead, there is only one loss model namely, the Initial Loss-Continuing Loss Model. The parameter values are the same.
  3. The only change is in the temporal patterns for MSMA (2000 and 2011).

 

5.4             Case Study on Time-Area Method

Compare the peak discharges using the Time-Area Method for MSMA (2000, 2011) for a fully developed site in Air Terjun, Sg. Batu, Kuala Lumpur.

Following are relevant data:

  1. Compute 100 year storm for 30 min duration.
  2. Enter the Areas between 6 successive 5-minute isochrones: 85000, 100000, 200000, 250000, 300000, 180000.
  3. Use the rainfall temporal patterns for site in MSMA (2000 and 2011).
  4. Time of concentration is 30 min.
  5. Enter the losses for impervious areas (Initial loss= 1.5 mm, continuous loss= 0 mm/hr) for MSMA (2000 and 2011).

 

5.4.1       Time-Area Method (MSMA, 2000)

The Time-Area Method was applied to the above catchment using the temporal pattern in MSMA (2000) and the results of computation shown in Table 5.3

Table 5.3 Time Area Method applied to Kuala Lumpur (MSMA, 2000)

A B1 B C D E F G H I J K1 K
Time Rainfall Ratio Rainfall Losses ER Time-Area Curve Runoff Generated By the Effective Rainfall (mm) Hydrograph
(min)   (mm) (mm) (mm) (m2) 12.28 21.53 28.41 7.75 9.47 5.17 (m3/s)
0 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0.00           0.00
5 0.160 13.78 1.50 12.28 85,000 3.48 0.00         3.48
10 0.250 21.53 0.00 21.53 100,000 4.09 6.10 0.00       10.19
15 0.330 28.41 0.00 28.41 200,000 8.18 7.18 8.05 0.00     23.41
20 0.090 7.75 0.00 7.75 250,000 10.23 14.35 9.47 2.20 0.00   36.25
25 0.110 9.47 0.00 9.47 300,000 12.28 17.94 18.94 2.58 2.68 0.00 54.42
30 0.060 5.17 0.00 5.17 180,000 7.37 21.53 23.68 5.17 3.16 1.46 62.35
35           0.00 12.92 28.41 6.46 6.31 1.72 55.82
40           0.00 0.00 17.05 7.75 7.89 3.44 36.13
45           0.00 0.00 0.00 4.65 9.47 4.31 18.43
50           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.68 5.17 10.85
55           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.10 3.10
60           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

 

5.4.2       Time-Area Method (MSMA, 2011)

The Time-Area Method was applied to the above catchment using the temporal pattern in MSMA (2011) and the results of computation shown in Table 5.4.

 

Table 5.4 Time Area Method applied to Sg Batu, Kuala Lumpur (MSMA, 2011)

A B1 B C D E F G H I J K1 K
Time Rainfall Ratio Rainfall Losses ER Time-Area Curve Runoff Generated By the Effective Rainfall (mm)   Hydrograph
(min)   (mm) (mm) (mm) (m2) 9.07 17.54 43.57 17.87 11.55 7.84 (m3/s)
0 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0.00           0.00
5 0.097 10.57 1.50 9.07 85,000 2.57 0.00         2.57
10 0.161 17.54 0.00 17.54 100,000 3.02 4.97 0.00       7.99
15 0.400 43.57 0.00 43.57 200,000 6.04 5.85 12.35 0.00     24.24
20 0.164 17.87 0.00 17.87 250,000 7.56 11.69 14.52 5.06 0.00   38.83
25 0.106 11.55 0.00 11.55 300,000 9.07 14.62 29.05 5.96 3.27 0.00 61.96
30 0.072 7.84 0.00 7.84 180,000 5.44 17.54 36.31 11.91 3.85 2.22 77.27
35           0.00 10.52 43.57 14.89 7.70 2.61 79.30
40           0.00 0.00 26.14 17.87 9.62 5.23 58.86
45           0.00 0.00 0.00 10.72 11.55 6.54 28.80
50           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.93 7.84 14.77
55           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.71 4.71
60           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

 

Table 5.5 Ratio of Storm Intensity for Sg. Batu, Kuala Lumpur (MSMA, 2000 and 2011)

Storm Intensity (mm/hr) (A)

MSMA (2011)

Storm Intensity (mm/hr) (B)

MSMA (2000)

Ratio= A/B
Dur (min):

 

ARI (Yr):

15 30 60 Dur (min):

 

ARI (Yr):

15 30 60 Dur (min):

 

ARI (Yr):

15 30 60
100 327.0 217.9 134.1 100 267.4 172.2 110.2 100 1.22 1.26 1.22
50 292.3 194.7 119.9 50 242.2 156.6 100.5 50 1.21 1.24 1.19
5 201.3 134.1 82.6 5 182.0 117.9 75.7 5 1.11 1.14 1.09

 

Table 5.6 Ratio of Qp using Time Area Method applied to Sg Batu, Kuala Lumpur (MSMA, 2000 and 2011)

Qp (Post Development) (m3/s) (A)

MSMA (2011)

Qp (Post Development) (m3/s) (B)

MSMA (2000)

Ratio= A/B
Dur (min):

 

ARI (Yr):

15 30 60 Dur (min):

 

ARI (Yr):

15 30 60 Dur (min):

 

ARI (Yr):

15 30 60
100 69.82 79.30 57.33 100 55.8 62.4 58.1 100 1.25 1.27 0.99
50 62.30 70.88 51.24 50 50.4 56.6 53.0 50 1.24 1.25 0.97
5 42.63 48.81 35.28 5 37.5 42.4 39.9 5 1.14 1.15 0.88

 

 

 

 

 

5.5             Evaluation

  • Table 3 shows the hydrograph computed using MSMA (2000), while Table 5.4 shows that computed using MSMA (2011).
  • Notice the temporal patterns used were based on the respective MSMA, while the same losses were adopted in both computations.
  • The result of the computation shows that the storm intensity computed using MSMA (2011) is up to about 1.26 times higher than MSMA (2000) as shown in Table 5.
  • For the 100 year 30 minutes storm, the Qp computed using MSMA (2000) is 62.35 m3/s, while the Qp computed using MSMA (2011) is 79.30 m3/s. The ratio of Qp using MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011) is 1.27 as shown in Table 6.
  • It is concluded that the peak discharges computed using Time-Area Method in MSMA (2011) is 1.27 times higher than that in MSMA (2000).
  • The difference is due primarily to the use of the temporal pattern for urban area (Region 5) in MSMA (2011) which is higher than that use in MSMA (2000).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.    Changes in On-Site Detention

6.1         OSD Sizing using MSMA (2000)

6.1.1    Theory

In MSMA (2000), the method of estimating Permissible Site Discharge (PSD) and Site Storage Requirement (SSR) is the Swinburne Method developed at the Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia.

 

The method is basically site-based, but considers the position of a site within the catchment. Refer to Figure 6.1, the peak flow time of concentration from the top of the catchment to the development site, tcs, is compared to the total time of concentration for the catchment, tc. The PSD varies with this ratio and may be less than or greater than the peak pre-development site discharge depending on the position of the site within the catchment.

 

The method uses the Rational Method to calculate site flows, and utilizes a non-dimensional triangular site hydrograph based on the triangular design storm method as shown in Figure 6.2. The site discharges are calculated using the total catchment time of concentration tc (not the time of concentration to the development site) for the design storm ARI under consideration as shown in Figure 6.1.

 

Figure 6.1 Relationship Between tc and tcs for the Swinburne Method

Figure 6.2 Swinburne Method Assumptions tf= Time for Storage to Fill

 

6.1.2    Permissible Site Discharge (PSD)

The PSD is the maximum allowable post-development discharge from a site for the selected discharge design storm and is estimated on the basis that flows within the downstream stormwater drainage system will not be increased. PSD is dependent on the following criteria:

  • The time of concentration of the catchment to its outlet, or a point of concern either within or downstream of the catchment.
  • The position of the site, time-wise from the uppermost reach of the catchment.
  • The original or adopted ARI of the public drainage system within the catchment and rainfall data.
  • The area of the development site.
  • The proportion of impervious area of the development site.
  • The type of OSD storage facility.
  • The extent of development or redevelopment within the catchment.
  • Local and/or regional drainage policies.

 

The Permissible Site Discharge (PSD) for the site in l/s is given by (Equation 19.1 of MSMA, 2000):

(Equation 6.1)

The factors a and b are different for above-ground and below-ground storages due to differences in storage geometry and outflow characteristics.

 

For above-ground storage:

(Equation 6.2)

(Equation 6.3)

 

For below-ground storage:

(Equation 6.4)

(Equation 6.5)

where

tc is Peak flow time of concentration from the top of the catchment to a designated outlet or point of concern (min)

tcs is peak flow time of concentration from the top of the catchment to the development site (min)

Qa is the peak post-development flow from the site for the discharge design storm with a duration equal to tc (l/s)

Qp is the peak pre-development flow from the site for the discharge design storm with a duration equal to tc (l/s).

 

6.1.3    Site Storage Requirement (SSR)

The SSR is the total amount of storage required to ensure that the required PSD is not exceeded and the OSD facility does not overflow during the storage design storm ARI.

 

As stated earlier, the storage design storm for estimating the SSR is 10 year ARI.

In sizing the volume of the storage facility, the method assumes a triangular inflow hydrograph and an outflow hydrograph shape related to the type of storage adopted. These simplifications are acceptable providing the site catchment is small.

 

Typically, the critical storm duration that produces the largest required storage volume is different from the time of concentration used for peak flow estimation. Therefore, storage volumes must be determined for a range of storm durations to find the maximum storage required as shown in Figure 6.3.

Figure 6.3 Typical Relationship of Storage Volume to Storm Duration

 

The Site Storage Requirement (SSR) for the site in m3 is calculated using the formula:

 

(Equation 6.6)

 

The factors c and d are different for above-ground and below-ground storages due to differences in storage geometry and outflow characteristics.

 

For above-ground storage:

(Equation 6.7)

(Equation 6.8)

 

For below-ground storage:

(Equation 6.9)

(Equation 6.10)

where

 

td= selected storm duration (min)

Qd= the peak post-development flow from the site for a storm duration equal to td (l/s)

 

6.1.4    OSD Sizing Procedure

A simplified design procedure for determining the required volume of detention storage is as follows (see Figure 6.4):

 

  1. Select storage type(s) to be used within the site, i.e. separate above and/or below-ground storage(s), or a composite above and below-ground storage.
  2. Determine the area of the site that will be drained to the OSD storage system. As much of the site as possible should drain to the storage system.
  3. Determine the amount of impervious and pervious areas draining to the OSD storage system.
  4. Determine the times of concentration, tc and  tcs.
  5. Calculate the pre and post-development flows, Qp and Qa, for the area draining to the storage for the discharge design storm with time of concentration tc.
  6. Determine the required PSD for the site using Equation 6.1 for the discharge design storm.
  7. Determine the required SSR for the site using Equation 6.6 for the storage design storm over a range of durations to determine the maximum value.

 

 

Discharge/Storage
Design Storm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fitting constants: a, b, c,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 6.4 Steps of Computation in OSD Design in MSMA (2000)

6.2         OSD Sizing using MSMA (2011)

6.2.1    Limiting Catchment Areas for OSD in MSMA (2011)

Table 6.1 lists the limiting catchment areas for OSD in MSMA (2011). OSD is to be used for areas less than 5 ha. For areas above 5 ha, the use of detention pond is required.

 

Table 6.1 Limiting Catchment Areas for OSD or Dry/Wet Detention Pond in MSMA (2011)

Type of Storage Facility

 

Limiting Area (ha)
Individual OSD ? 0.1
Community OSD >0.1, ?5
Dry Detention Pond 5 to 10
Wet Detention Pond >10

 

6.2.2    Method for OSD Design in MSMA (2011)

Below are the steps involved in OSD design based on MSMA (2011).

  1. Figure 5.A1 (MSMA, 2011) divides peninsula into 5 design regions.
  2. Determine project area, terrain steepness, and percentage imperviousness.
  3. Table 5.A1 gives the maximum permissible site discharge (PSD) and minimum Site Storage Requirement (SSR) values in accordance with the five regions in Peninsular Malaysia.
  4. Table 5.A2 gives the maximum permissible site discharge (PSD), minimum Site Storage Requirement (SSR) and inlet values in accordance with the major towns in Peninsular Malaysia.
  5. Adopt smaller PSD value from Table 5.A1 and 5.A2 for subsequent sizing of outlet pipe.
  6. Table 5.A3 gives the OSD volume, inlet size and outlet size for 5 different regions in Peninsular Malaysia.
  7. Table 5.A4 gives the discharge and pipe diameter relationship for low lying, mild and steep slopes.
  8. Adopt the SSR is the larger from Table 5.A1 and 5.A2.
  9. Sizing of OSD tank based on the SSR.
  10. Adopt inlet pipe: Inlet pipe is the smaller of Table 5.A3 and 5.A4.
  11. Adopt outlet pipe: Outlet pipe is the smaller of Table 5.A3 and 5.A4.

 

 

 

 

 

6.3         Case Study on On-Site Detention for Kuala Lumpur

The case study looks at the design of a below-ground, on-site detention (OSD) facility using the guidelines described in MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011) for a proposed factory site in SK Taman Maluri, Kuala Lumpur as shown in Figure 6.5.

 

 

Factory Site

 

Figure 6.5 Location of OSD in the Project Site

 

6.3.1            OSD in MSMA (2000)

6.3.1.1 Design Criteria

The proposed single storey factory can be classified as low density development.

 

According to Chapter 11 of the Manual, on-site facilities are minor drainage structures provided on individual housing, industrial and infrastructure sites. For quantity design they are based on peak inflow estimates using the Rational Method with design storms between 2 and 10 year ARI.

 

The design rainfall is based on Chapter 13 of the Manual. The design storm for Kuala Lumpur is used in the calculation.

 

6.3.1.2 Determination of Impervious and Pervious Areas

For the purpose of hydrological calculation, the area is shown in Table 6.2.

 

It is estimated that 70% of the areas may be considered as impervious. Hence the impervious area is computed by multiplying the total area by 70% as shown in the table.

 

The remaining 30% of the areas is assumed pervious. Hence the pervious area is computed by multiplying the total area by 30% as shown in the table.

 

Table 6.2 Pervious and Impervious Areas

Total area (m2) Pervious Area (m2) Impervious Area (m2)
30162 9048.6 21113.4

 

6.3.1.3 Determination of Time of Concentration, tc and tcs

For small catchments of up to 0.4 hectare in area, it is acceptable to use the minimum times of concentration given in Table 14.3 of MSMA (2000) instead of performing detailed calculation.

 

The times of concentration adopted are as follows:

  • tc= 10 min (factory site outlet)
  • tcs= 5 min (roof and property drainage)

 

6.3.1.4 Determination of Pre and Post Development Flows

Calculate I

The values of the coefficients for a, b, c and d in Table 13.A1 (MSMA, 2000) for ARI of 2 years for Kuala Lumpur are as follows:

 

a=5.3255, b=0.1806, c=-0.1322, d=0.0047

 

Substituting the above coefficients into:

where

RIt  is the average rainfall intensity (mm/hr) for ARI R and duration t

R   is average return interval (years)

t    is duration (minutes)

a to d  are fitting constants dependent on ARI.

 

For t= 30 min, 2I30= 99.0 mm/hr

For t= 60 min, 2I60= 64.8 mm/hr

 

Convert to rainfall depths,

2P30= 99/2 = 49.51 mm

2P60= 64.8/1 = 64.8 mm

Calculate C

According to DID (2000), the design rainfall depth Pd for a short duration d (min) is given by:

 

 

where

P30 and P60 are the 30 min and 60 min rainfall depths, respectively, obtained from the published polynomial curves.

FD is the adjustment factor for storm duration from Table 13.3 (MSMA, 2000).

 

Hence 2P10= 49.51-1.28*(64.8-49.51)= 29.94 mm

Therefore 2I10= 179.63 mm/hr

 

From Design Chart 14.3, for category 7 (park lawns and meadows) the runoff coefficient is 0.59.

 

For category 1 (impervious roof and concrete), the runoff coefficient is 0.91.

 

Calculate Qp

The peak discharge for ARI=2 years is computed using the Rational Method:

 

where

Qy        is the y year ARI peak discharge (m3/s)

C         is the dimensionless runoff coefficient

yIt         is the average intensity of the design rainstorm of duration equal to the time of concentration tc and of ARI of y year (mm/hr)

A          is the drainage area (ha)

 

 

For pre-development,

Qp= 1.7796*179.63/360 *1000= 888.0 l/s (Qp)

 

For post-development,

Qp= 2.4552*179.63*/360 *1000= 1225.1 l/s  (Qa)

 

The results are tabulated in Table 6.3.

 

 

6.3.1.5 Determination of Permissible Site Discharge (PSD)

As stated in Section 19.3.1 of the Manual, the discharge design storm for estimating the PSD is the minor system design ARI of the municipal stormwater system to which the site is or will be connected. In this case, it is the 2 year ARI storm.

 

The Permissible Site Discharge (PSD) for the site in l/s is given by (from Equation 19.1 of MSMA, 2000):

 

 

The factors a and b are different for above-ground and below-ground storages due to differences in storage geometry and outflow characteristics.

 

For below-ground storage:

 

 

where

tc= Peak flow time of concentration from the top of the catchment to a designated outlet or point of concern (min)

tcs= peak flow time of concentration from the top of the catchment to the development site (min)

Qa= the peak post-development flow from the site for the discharge design storm with a duration equal to tc (l/s)

Qp= the peak pre-development flow from the site for the discharge design storm with a duration equal to tc (l/s)

 

For below-ground storage:

The results are tabulated in Table 6.4.

6.3.1.6 Determination of Site Storage Requirement (SSR)

As stated in Section 19.3.1 of MSMA (2000), the storage design storm for estimating the SSR is 10 year ARI.

 

In sizing the volume of the storage facility, the method assumes a triangular inflow hydrograph and an outflow hydrograph shape related to the type of storage adopted. These simplifications are acceptable providing the site catchment  is small.

 

Typically, the critical storm duration that produces the largest required storage volume is different from the time of concentration used for peak flow estimation. Therefore storage volumes must be determined for a range of storm durations to find the maximum storage required.

 

The Site Storage Requirement (SSR) for the site in m3 is calculated using the formula:

 

 

 

The factors c and d are different for above-ground and below-ground storages due to differences in storage geometry and outflow characteristics.

 

For below-ground storage:

 

 

where

td= selected storm duration (min)

Qd= the peak post-development flow from the site for a storm duration equal to td (l/s)

 

The values of the coefficients for a, b, c and d in Table 13.A1 for ARI of 10 years for Kuala Lumpur are as follows:

 

a=4.9696, b=0.6796, c=-0.2584, d=0.0147

 

The magnitudes of 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes short duration design storms are computed as shown in Table 6.5 to be 315.3, 247.4, 200.9 and 169.2 mm/hr, respectively.

 

The C values are read from Design Chart 14.3 of the Manual.

 

For impervious area, the C values are based on Category 1 (Impervious roof and concrete) catchment for the range of rainfall intensities corresponding to tc of 5, 10, 15 and 20 min.

 

For pervious area, the C values are based on Category 7 (park lawns and meadows) catchment for the range of rainfall intensities corresponding to tc of 5, 10, 15 and 20 min.

 

For the area, for tc= 5 min, the peak post-development flow:

 

Qp= 2.6452*315.3/360 *1000= 2317.0 l/s (Qd)

 

The results and those for tc =10, 15 and 20 min are tabulated in Table 6.5.

 

The corresponding SSR are computed using the above formula for below-ground storage.

 

 

 

 

The results for tc =5, 10, 15 and 20 min are tabulated in Table 6.6 and plotted as shown in Figure 6.6. It can be seen that the maximum SSR is 700.9 m3 for a storm duration of 15 min. The SSR is therefore 700.9 m3.

 

Figure 6.6 Plot of SSR Versus Storm Duration

 

 

Table 6.3 Computation of Pre/Post Development Peaks

Develop
ment
ARI a b C D 30 60               Impervious Area Pervious Area Sum Pre/Post Dev
LN(T) LN(T)         3.4012 4.0943 tcs (min) tc (min) P30 (mm) P60 (mm) FD Pd (mm) Id (mm/hr) C A (ha) C A (ha) CA Qp (l/s)
Pre 2 5.3255 0.1806 -0.1322 0.0047 99.0 64.8 5 10 49.51 64.8 1.28 29.94 179.63 0 0 0.59 3.0162 1.7796 887.9
Post 2 5.3255 0.1806 -0.1322 0.0047 99.0 64.8 5 10 49.51 64.8 1.28 29.94 179.63 0.91 2.1113 0.59 0.9049 2.4552 1225.0

 

 

Table 6.4 Computation of Permissible Site Discharge (PSD)

Development     Pre/Post Dev Below Ground Storage  
  Tcs (min) tc (min) Qp (l/s) a b PSD (l/s)
Pre-Development 5 10 887.964      
Post-Development 5 10 1225.090 9596.223 9298824.1 1093.6

 

Table 6.5 Computation of Peak Post-Development Flow (QD)

ARI a b C D 30 60               Impervious Area Pervious Area Sum Pre/Post Dev
LN(T)         3.4012 4.0943 tcs (min) tc (min) P30 (mm) P60 (mm) FD Pd (mm) Id (mm/hr) C A (ha) C A (ha) CA Qp (l/s)
10 4.9696 0.6796 -0.2584 0.0147 130.4 83.9   5 65.18 83.9 2.08 26.28 315.33 0.91 2.1113 0.8 0.9049 2.6452 2317.0
10 4.9696 0.6796 -0.2584 0.0147 130.4 83.9   10 65.18 83.9 1.28 41.24 247.43 0.91 2.1113 0.7 0.9049 2.5547 1755.9
10 4.9696 0.6796 -0.2584 0.0147 130.4 83.9   15 65.18 83.9 0.80 50.21 200.86 0.91 2.1113 0.63 0.9049 2.4914 1390.0
10 4.9696 0.6796 -0.2584 0.0147 130.4 83.9   20 65.18 83.9 0.47 56.39 169.16 0.91 2.1113 0.58 0.9049 2.4461 1149.4

 

 

Table 6.6 Computation of Site Storage Requirements (SSR)

  Pre/Post Dev   Below Ground Storage
tc (min) Qp (l/s) PSD (l/s) C d SSR (m3)
5 2317.0 1093.6 601.6201 60.3980 496.5
10 1755.9 1093.6 557.9707 79.6987 670.9
15 1390.0 1093.6 510.5355 100.6735 700.9
20 1149.4 1093.6 462.868 121.7509 677.7

 

 

6.3.2            OSD in MSMA (2011)

In this section, an OSD is designed based on MSMA (2011) for the same site as in the previous section.

 

The design is presented below and tabulated in a spreadsheet as shown in Figure 6.7.

 

Project Data

The project area is located in Kuala Lumpur.

 

So from Figure 5.A1 which divides peninsula into 5 design regions, the project area is located in Region 1- West Coast.

 

The Project area is 3.0162 ha.

 

The Terrain is mild.

 

The % imperviousness is 70 per cent.

 

Table 5.A1

Table 5.A1 gives the maximum permissible site discharge (PSD) and minimum Site Storage Requirement (SSR) values in accordance with the five regions in Peninsular Malaysia.

 

From Table 5.A1, the Permissible Site Discharge (PSD)/ha= 78.54 l/s/ha.

 

For the project area, PSD= 3.0162 x 78.54=236.9         l/s=0.237m3/s.

 

From Table 5.A1, the Site Storage Requirement (SSR)/ha= 432.24 m3/ha.

 

For the project area, SSR= 3.0162 x 432.24= 1303.7 m3.

 

Table 5.A2

Table 5.A2 gives the maximum permissible site discharge (PSD), minimum Site Storage Requirement (SSR) and inlet values in accordance with the major towns in Peninsular Malaysia.

 

From Table 5.A2, the inlet flow/ha is 214 l/s/ha.

 

For the project area, inlet flow=3.0162 x 214= 645.5 l/s= 0.645 m3/s.

 

From Table 5.A2, PSD/ha=        72.96   l/s/ha.

 

For the project area, PSD= 2.0162 x 72.96 = 220.1 l/s =           0.220   m3/s.

 

From Table 5.A2, SSR/ha= 423.28 m3/ha.

 

For the project area, SSR= 3.0162 x 423.28 = 1276.7 m3.

 

Adopt smaller PSD value from Table 5.A1 and 5.A2 for subsequent sizing of outlet pipe= 0.220 m3/s.

 

Table 5.A3:

Table 5.A3 gives the OSD volume, inlet size and outlet size for 5 different regions in Peninsular Malaysia.

 

From Table 5.A3, the inlet pipe= 714 mm diameter.

 

From Table 5.A3, the outlet pipe= 380 mm diameter.

 

Table 5.A4:

Table 5.A4 gives the discharge and pipe diameter relationship for low lying, mild and steep slopes.

 

From Table 5.A4, the inlet pipe for the inlet flow of 0.645 m3/s computed in Table 5.A2= 920 mm diameter.

 

From Table 5.A4, the outlet pipe for the adopted PSD of 0.220 m3/s=  474 mm diameter

 

Adopt PSD and SSR:

Adopt the PSD value which is the lower from Table 5.A1 and 5.A2= 0.220 m3/s.

 

Adopt the SSR is the larger from Table 5.A1 and 5.A2= 1303.7            m3.

 

Sizing of OSD tank:

The required storage is 1303.7 m3.

Adopt depth= 1.2 m.

Adopt width= 25 m.

Length=   43.46   m.

Adopt length=      45 m.

Tank Storage=    1.2 x 25 x 45= 1350.0 m3       >          1303.7   OK

 

Adopt inlet pipe: Inlet pipe is the smaller of Table 5.A3 and 5.A4= 714 mm, adopted= 750 mm.

 

Adopt outlet pipe: Outlet pipe is the smaller of Table 5.A3 and 5.A4= 380 mm, adopted= 350 mm.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 6.7 Summary of OSD Computation using MSMA (2011) for Kuala Lumpur

 

 

 

 

6.3.3    Exact Swinburne Method (ESM) Applied to MSMA2 Data

6.3.3.1 Design Criteria

 

The design rainfall is based on MSMA (2011) for Station 4 (SK Taman Maluri).

 

The OSD design is based on peak inflow estimates using the Rational Method with design storms between 2 and 10 year ARI.

 

6.3.3.2 Determination of Impervious and Pervious Areas

The pervious and impervious areas are shown in Table 6.2.

 

6.3.3.3 Determination of Time of Concentration, tc and tcs

For small catchments of up to 0.4 hectare in area, it is acceptable to use the minimum times of concentration given in Table 14.3 of MSMA (2000) instead of performing detailed calculation.

 

The times of concentration adopted are as follows:

  • tc= 10 min (factory site outlet)
  • tcs= 5 min (roof and property drainage)

 

6.3.3.4 Determination of Pre and Post Development Flows

Calculate I

In MSMA (2011), the storm intensity for SK Taman Maluri for 2 years ARI is as follows:

where

i  is the Average rainfall intensity (mm/hr)

T is the Average return interval (years) for ARI of between 0.5 and 12 months and 2 and 100 years.

d is the Storm duration (hours) where d is between 0.0833 and 72 hours
, ?, ? and ? are the fitting constants= 62.765, 0.132, 0.147 and 0.820, respectively.

 

            The rainfall intensities are summarised as shown in Table 6.7.

 

 

Table 6.7 IDF Data for SK Taman Maluri Kuala Lumpur
(ARI of 2 and 10 Year and Durations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 minutes) (MSMA, 2011)

ARI YR ? ? ? ? 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 25 min 30 min 35 min
2 62.765 0.132 0.147 0.82 229.256 177.971 146.705 125.484 110.056 98.291 88.995
10 62.765 0.132 0.147 0.82 283.521 220.097 181.430 155.186 136.107 121.556 110.060

 

 

Calculate C

 

From Table 4.1, the runoff coefficients for minor system for ARI of 10 years or less are:

 

Sport fields= 0.3

Commercial and business centres= 0.9

 

Calculate Qp

 

In MSMA (2011), the peak discharge is related to the rainfall intensity and catchment area via the Rational Method:

 

 

where

Q is the peak flow (m3/s)

C is the runoff coefficient given in Table 4.1 (Table 2.5 of MSMA, 2011).

I is the average rainfall intensity (mm/hr)

A is the drainage area (ha)

 

The pre and post development peaks for ARI of 2 years are shown in Table 6.8.

 

 

Table 6.8 Computation of Pre/Post Development Peaks

ARI tcs tc Id Impervious Area Pervious Area Sum Pre/Post Dev
LN(T) (min) (min) (mm/hr) C A (ha) C A (ha) CA Q (l/s)
2 5 10 177.97 0 0 0.3 3.0162 0.9049 447.33
2 5 10 177.97 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 1073.59

 

 

6.3.3.5 Determination of Permissible Site Discharge (PSD)

As stated in Section 19.3.1 of the Manual, the discharge design storm for estimating the PSD is the minor system design ARI of the municipal stormwater system to which the site is or will be connected. In this case, it is the 2 year ARI storm.

 

The Permissible Site Discharge (PSD) for the site in l/s is given by (from Equation 19.1 of MSMA, 2000):

 

 

The factors a and b are different for above-ground and below-ground storages due to differences in storage geometry and outflow characteristics.

 

For below-ground storage:

 

 

where

tc= Peak flow time of concentration from the top of the catchment to a designated outlet or point of concern (min)

tcs= peak flow time of concentration from the top of the catchment to the development site (min)

Qa= the peak post-development flow from the site for the discharge design storm with a duration equal to tc (l/s)

Qp= the peak pre-development flow from the site for the discharge design storm with a duration equal to tc (l/s)

 

 

The results are tabulated in Table 6.9.

 

 

 

 

Table 6.9 Computation of Permissible Site Discharge (PSD)

ARI Development tcs (min) tc (min) Qp (l/s) a b PSD (l/s)
2 Pre-Development 5 10 447.33      
2 Post-Development 5 10 1073.59 7467.841 4105181.8 597.5

 

 

6.3.3.6 Determination of Site Storage Requirement (SSR)

As stated in Section 19.3.1 of MSMA (2000), the storage design storm for estimating the SSR is 10 year ARI.

 

In sizing the volume of the storage facility, the method assumes a triangular inflow hydrograph and an outflow hydrograph shape related to the type of storage adopted. These simplifications are acceptable providing the site catchment is small.

 

Typically, the critical storm duration that produces the largest required storage volume is different from the time of concentration used for peak flow estimation. Therefore storage volumes must be determined for a range of storm durations to find the maximum storage required.

 

The Site Storage Requirement (SSR) for the site in m3 is calculated using the formula:

 

 

 

The factors c and d are different for above-ground and below-ground storages due to differences in storage geometry and outflow characteristics.

 

For below-ground storage:

 

 

where

td= selected storm duration (min)

Qd= the peak post-development flow from the site for a storm duration equal to td (l/s)

 

The results for tc = 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 min are tabulated in Table 6.10 and plotted as shown Table 6.8. It can be seen that the maximum SSR is 723.3 m3 for a storm duration of 30 min.

 

Table 6.10 Computation of Post Development Peaks and Site Storage Requirements (SSR)

ARI tc Id Impervious Area Pervious Area Sum Pre/Post Dev   Below Ground Storage
(YR) (min) (mm/hr) C A (ha) C A (ha) CA Q (l/s) PSD (l/s) c d SSR (m3)
10 5 283.52 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 1710.3 597.5 348.0925 24.4243 401.3
10 10 220.10 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 1327.7 597.5 332.1753 31.4625 578.4
10 15 181.43 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 1094.5 597.5 317.0109 38.1678 665.4
10 20 155.19 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 936.1 597.5 302.4133 44.6226 706.9
10 25 136.11 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 821.0 597.5 288.267 50.8777 722.9
10 30 121.56 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 733.3 597.5 274.4936 56.9680 723.3
10 35 110.06 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 663.9 597.5 261.0369 62.9183 713.9

Figure 6.8 Plot of SSR versus Storm Duration

6.4         Case Study on On-Site Detention for Pulau Pinang

The case study looks at the design of a below-ground, on-site detention (OSD) facility using the guidelines described in MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011) for a proposed factory site in Pulau Pinang at Klinik Bukit Bendera as shown in Figure 6.9.

 

 

Factory Site

 

Figure 6.9 Location of OSD in the Project Site

 

6.4.1            OSD in MSMA (2000)

6.4.1.1 Design Criteria

The proposed single storey factory can be classified as low density development.

 

According to Chapter 11 of the Manual, on-site facilities are minor drainage structures provided on individual housing, industrial and infrastructure sites. For quantity design they are based on peak inflow estimates using the Rational Method with design storms between 2 and 10 year ARI.

 

The design rainfall is based on Chapter 13 of the Manual. The design storm for Pulau Pinang at Klinik Bukit Bendera is used in the calculation.

 

6.4.1.2 Determination of Impervious and Pervious Areas

For the purpose of hydrological calculation, the area is shown in Table 6.11 .

 

It is estimated that 70% of the areas may be considered as impervious. Hence the impervious area is computed by multiplying the total area by 70% as shown in the table.

 

The remaining 30% of the areas is assumed pervious. Hence the pervious area is computed by multiplying the total area by 30% as shown in the table.

 

 

Table 6.11 Pervious and Impervious Areas

Total area (m2) Pervious Area (m2) Impervious Area (m2)
30162 9048.6 21113.4

 

6.4.1.3 Determination of Time of Concentration, tc and tcs

For small catchments of up to 0.4 hectare in area, it is acceptable to use the minimum times of concentration given in Table 14.3 of MSMA (2000) instead of performing detailed calculation.

 

The times of concentration adopted are as follows:

  • tc= 10 min (factory site outlet)
  • tcs= 5 min (roof and property drainage)

 

6.4.1.4 Determination of Pre and Post Development Flows

Calculate I

The values of the coefficients for a, b, c and d in Table 13.A1 (MSMA, 2000) for ARI of 2 years for Pulau Pinang are as follows:

 

a=4.5140, b=0.6729, c=-0.2311, d=0.0118

 

Substituting the above coefficients into:

where

RIt  is the average rainfall intensity (mm/hr) for ARI R and duration t

R   is average return interval (years)

t    is duration (minutes)

a to d  are fitting constants dependent on ARI.

 

For t= 30 min, 2I30= 98.8 mm/hr

For t= 60 min, 2I60= 67.0 mm/hr

 

Convert to rainfall depths,

2P30= 98.8/2 = 49.4 mm

2P60= 67/1 = 67.0 mm

Calculate C

According to DID (2000), the design rainfall depth Pd for a short duration d (min) is given by:

 

 

where

P30 and P60 are the 30 min and 60 min rainfall depths, respectively, obtained from the published polynomial curves.

FD is the adjustment factor for storm duration from Table 13.3 (MSMA, 2000).

 

Hence 2P10= 49.4-1.04*(67-49.4)= 31.1 mm

Therefore 2I10= 186.8 mm/hr

 

From Design Chart 14.3, for category 7 (park lawns and meadows) the runoff coefficient is 0.61.

 

For category 1 (impervious roof and concrete), the runoff coefficient is 0.91.

 

Calculate Qp

The peak discharge for ARI=2 years is computed using the Rational Method:

 

where

Qy        is the y year ARI peak discharge (m3/s)

C         is the dimensionless runoff coefficient

yIt         is the average intensity of the design rainstorm of duration equal to the time of concentration tc and of ARI of y year (mm/hr)

A          is the drainage area (ha)

 

 

For pre-development,

Qp= 954.5 l/s (Qp)

 

For post-development,

Qp= 1283 l/s  (Qa)

 

The results are tabulated in Table 6.12.

 

 

6.4.1.5 Determination of Permissible Site Discharge (PSD)

As stated in Section 19.3.1 of the Manual, the discharge design storm for estimating the PSD is the minor system design ARI of the municipal stormwater system to which the site is or will be connected. In this case, it is the 2 year ARI storm.

 

The Permissible Site Discharge (PSD) for the site in l/s is given by (from Equation 19.1 of MSMA, 2000):

 

 

The factors a and b are different for above-ground and below-ground storages due to differences in storage geometry and outflow characteristics.

 

For below-ground storage:

 

 

where

tc= Peak flow time of concentration from the top of the catchment to a designated outlet or point of concern (min)

tcs= peak flow time of concentration from the top of the catchment to the development site (min)

Qa= the peak post-development flow from the site for the discharge design storm with a duration equal to tc (l/s)

Qp= the peak pre-development flow from the site for the discharge design storm with a duration equal to tc (l/s)

 

For below-ground storage:

The results are tabulated in Table 6.13.

6.4.1.6 Determination of Site Storage Requirement (SSR)

As stated in Section 19.3.1 of MSMA (2000), the storage design storm for estimating the SSR is 10 year ARI.

 

In sizing the volume of the storage facility, the method assumes a triangular inflow hydrograph and an outflow hydrograph shape related to the type of storage adopted. These simplifications are acceptable providing the site catchment  is small.

 

Typically, the critical storm duration that produces the largest required storage volume is different from the time of concentration used for peak flow estimation. Therefore storage volumes must be determined for a range of storm durations to find the maximum storage required.

 

The Site Storage Requirement (SSR) for the site in m3 is calculated using the formula:

 

 

 

The factors c and d are different for above-ground and below-ground storages due to differences in storage geometry and outflow characteristics.

 

For below-ground storage:

 

 

where

td= selected storm duration (min)

Qd= the peak post-development flow from the site for a storm duration equal to td (l/s)

 

The values of the coefficients for a, b, c and d in Table 13.A1 for ARI of 10 years for Pulau Pinang are as follows:

 

a=3.7277, b=1.4393, c=-0.4023, d=0.0241

 

The magnitudes of 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes short duration design storms are computed as shown in Table 6.14 to be 319.9, 257.0, 209.6 and 177.0 mm/hr, respectively.

 

The C values are read from Design Chart 14.3 of the Manual.

 

For impervious area, the C values are based on Category 1 (Impervious roof and concrete) catchment for the range of rainfall intensities corresponding to tc of 5, 10, 15 and 20 min.

 

For pervious area, the C values are based on Category 7 (park lawns and meadows) catchment for the range of rainfall intensities corresponding to tc of 5, 10, 15 and 20 min.

 

For the area, for tc= 5 min, the peak post-development flow:

 

Qp= 2366.6 l/s (Qd)

 

The results and those for tc =10, 15 and 20 min are tabulated in Table 6.14.

 

The corresponding SSR are computed using the above formula for below-ground storage.

 

 

 

The results for tc =5, 10, 15 and 20 min are tabulated in Table 6.15 and plotted as shown in Figure 6.10. It can be seen that the maximum SSR is 728.7 m3 for a storm duration of 15 min. The SSR is therefore 728.7 m3.

 

Figure 6.10 Plot of SSR Versus Storm Duration

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 6.12 Computation of Pre/Post Development Peaks

Develop

ment

ARI a b c d 30 60               Impervious Area Pervious Area Sum Pre/Post Dev
            3.4012 4.0943 tcs (min) tc (min) P30 (mm) P60 (mm) FD Pd (mm) Id (mm/hr) C A (ha) C A (ha) CA Q (l/s)
Pre 2 4.5140 0.6729 -0.2311 0.0118 98.8 67.0 5 10 49.42 67.0 1.04 31.13 186.76 0 0 0.61 3.0162 1.8399 954.4
Post 2 4.5140 0.6729 -0.2311 0.0118 98.8 67.0 5 10 49.42 67.0 1.04 31.13 186.76 0.91 2.1113 0.61 0.9049 2.4733 1283.0

 

Table 6.13 Computation of Permissible Site Discharge (PSD)

Development     Pre/Post Dev Below Ground Storage  
  tcs (min) tc (min) Q (l/s) a b PSD (l/s)
Pre 5 10 954.468      
Post 5 10 1283.055 10119.97 10468173 1169.6

 

Table 6.14 Computation of Peak Post-Development Flow (QD)

ARI a b c d 30 60             Impervious Area Pervious Area Sum Pre/Post Dev
LN(T)         3.4012 4.0943 tc (min) P30 (mm) P60 (mm) FD Pd (mm) Id (mm/hr) C A (ha) C A (ha) CA Q (l/s)
10 3.7277 1.4393 -0.4023 0.0241 136.6 92.8 5 68.32 92.8 1.70 26.66 319.90 0.91 2.1113 0.82 0.9049 2.6633 2366.6
10 3.7277 1.4393 -0.4023 0.0241 136.6 92.8 10 68.32 92.8 1.04 42.83 257.01 0.91 2.1113 0.71 0.9049 2.5638 1830.3
10 3.7277 1.4393 -0.4023 0.0241 136.6 92.8 15 68.32 92.8 0.65 52.39 209.57 0.91 2.1113 0.65 0.9049 2.5095 1460.9
10 3.7277 1.4393 -0.4023 0.0241 136.6 92.8 20 68.32 92.8 0.38 59.01 177.03 0.91 2.1113 0.59 0.9049 2.4552 1207.3

 

 

 

 

Table 6.15 Computation of Site Storage Requirements (SSR)

tc (min) Q (l/s) PSD (l/s) c d SSR (m3)
5 2366.6 1169.6 636.5261 67.6256 498.7
10 1830.3 1169.6 591.7092 87.4426 690.7
15 1460.9 1169.6 541.7028 109.5543 728.7
20 1207.3 1169.6 489.6754 132.5596 702.1

 

 

6.4.2            OSD in MSMA (2011)

In this section, an OSD is designed based on MSMA (2011) for the same site as in the previous section.

 

The design is presented below and tabulated in a spreadsheet as shown in Figure 6.11

 

Project Data

The project area is located in Kuala Lumpur.

 

So from Figure 5.A1 which divides peninsula into 5 design regions, the project area is located in Region 3- Nothern Region.

 

The Project area is 3.0162 ha.

 

The Terrain is mild.

 

The % imperviousness is 70 per cent.

 

Table 5.A1

Table 5.A1 gives the maximum permissible site discharge (PSD) and minimum Site Storage Requirement (SSR) values in accordance with the five regions in Peninsular Malaysia.

 

From Table 5.A1, the Permissible Site Discharge (PSD)/ha= 69.76 l/s/ha.

 

For the project area, PSD= 3.0162 x 69.76=210.4 l/s=0.210 m3/s.

 

From Table 5.A1, the Site Storage Requirement (SSR)/ha= 435.26 m3/ha.

 

For the project area, SSR= 3.0162 x 435.26= 1312.8 m3.

 

Table 5.A2

Table 5.A2 gives the maximum permissible site discharge (PSD), minimum Site Storage Requirement (SSR) and inlet values in accordance with the major towns in Peninsular Malaysia.

 

For Alor Setar, from Table 5.A2, the inlet flow/ha is 214 l/s/ha.

 

For the project area, inlet flow=3.0162 x 214= 645.5 l/s= 0.645 m3/s.

 

From Table 5.A2, PSD/ha=        69.76   l/s/ha.

 

For the project area, PSD= 2.0162 x 69.76 = 210.4 l/s =           0.210   m3/s.

 

From Table 5.A2, SSR/ha= 435.26 m3/ha.

 

For the project area, SSR= 3.0162 x 425.26 = 1312.8 m3.

 

Adopt smaller PSD value from Table 5.A1 and 5.A2 for subsequent sizing of outlet pipe= 0.210 m3/s.

 

Table 5.A3:

Table 5.A3 gives the OSD volume, inlet size and outlet size for 5 different regions in Peninsular Malaysia.

 

From Table 5.A3, the inlet pipe= 714 mm diameter.

 

From Table 5.A3, the outlet pipe= 355 mm diameter.

 

Table 5.A4:

Table 5.A4 gives the discharge and pipe diameter relationship for low lying, mild and steep slopes.

 

From Table 5.A4, the inlet pipe for the inlet flow of 0.645 m3/s computed in Table 5.A2= 927 mm diameter.

 

From Table 5.A4, the outlet pipe for the adopted PSD of 0.210 m3/s=  474 mm diameter

 

Adopt PSD and SSR:

Adopt the PSD value which is the lower from Table 5.A1 and 5.A2= 0.210 m3/s.

 

Adopt the SSR is the larger from Table 5.A1 and 5.A2= 1312.8            m3.

 

Sizing of OSD tank:

The required storage is 1312.8 m3.

Adopt depth= 1.2 m.

Adopt width= 25 m.

Length=   43.76   m.

Adopt length=      45 m.

Tank Storage=    1.2 x 25 x 45= 1350.0 m3       >          1312.8   OK

 

Adopt inlet pipe: Inlet pipe is the smaller of Table 5.A3 and 5.A4= 714 mm, adopted= 750 mm.

 

Adopt outlet pipe: Outlet pipe is the smaller of Table 5.A3 and 5.A4= 355 mm, adopted= 350 mm.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 6.11 Summary of OSD Computation using MSMA (2011) for Pulau Pinang

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.4.3    Exact Swinburne Method (ESM) Applied to MSMA2 Data

6.4.3.1 Design Criteria

 

The design rainfall is based on MSMA (2011) for Pulau Pinang at Klinik Bukit Bendera.

 

The OSD design is based on peak inflow estimates using the Rational Method with design storms between 2 and 10 year ARI.

 

6.4.3.2 Determination of Impervious and Pervious Areas

The pervious and impervious areas are shown in Table 6.11.

 

6.4.3.3 Determination of Time of Concentration, tc and tcs

For small catchments of up to 0.4 hectare in area, it is acceptable to use the minimum times of concentration given in Table 14.3 of MSMA (2000) instead of performing detailed calculation.

 

The times of concentration adopted are as follows:

  • tc= 10 min (factory site outlet)
  • tcs= 5 min (roof and property drainage)

 

6.4.3.4 Determination of Pre and Post Development Flows

Calculate I

In MSMA (2011), the storm intensity for Pulau Pinang for 2 years ARI is as follows:

where

i  is the Average rainfall intensity (mm/hr)

T is the Average return interval (years) for ARI of between 0.5 and 12 months and 2 and 100 years.

d is the Storm duration (hours) where d is between 0.0833 and 72 hours
, ?, ? and ? are the fitting constants= 62.765, 0.132, 0.147 and 0.820, respectively.

 

            The rainfall intensities are summarised as shown in Table 6.16.

 

Table 6.16 IDF Data for Pulau Pinang (ARI of 2 and 10 Year and Durations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 minutes) (MSMA, 2011)

ARI (T) YR ? ? ? ? 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
2 64.504 0.196 0.149 0.723 212.2 170.0 143.5 125.1 111.5 101.0 92.55 85.61 79.80 74.84 70.5 66.8
10 64.504 0.196 0.149 0.723 290.9 233.1 196.8 171.6 152.9 138.4 126.8 117.3 109.4 102.6 96.7 91.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Calculate C

 

From Table 4.1, the runoff coefficients for minor system for ARI of 10 years or less are:

 

Sport fields= 0.3

Commercial and business centres= 0.9

 

Calculate Qp

 

In MSMA (2011), the peak discharge is related to the rainfall intensity and catchment area via the Rational Method:

 

 

where

Q is the peak flow (m3/s)

C is the runoff coefficient given in Table 4.1 (Table 2.5 of MSMA, 2011).

I is the average rainfall intensity (mm/hr)

A is the drainage area (ha)

 

The pre and post development peaks for ARI of 2 years are shown in Table 6.17.

 

 

Table 6.17 Computation of Pre/Post Development Peaks

ARI tcs tc Id Impervious Area Pervious Area Sum Pre/Post Dev
LN(T)  (min) (min)  (mm/hr) C A (ha) C A (ha) CA Q (l/s)
2 5 10 170.08 0 0 0.3 3.0162 0.9049 427.489
2 5 10 170.08 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 1025.974

 

 

6.4.3.5 Determination of Permissible Site Discharge (PSD)

As stated in Section 19.3.1 of the Manual, the discharge design storm for estimating the PSD is the minor system design ARI of the municipal stormwater system to which the site is or will be connected. In this case, it is the 2 year ARI storm.

 

The Permissible Site Discharge (PSD) for the site in l/s is given by (from Equation 19.1 of MSMA, 2000):

 

 

The factors a and b are different for above-ground and below-ground storages due to differences in storage geometry and outflow characteristics.

 

For below-ground storage:

 

 

where

tc= Peak flow time of concentration from the top of the catchment to a designated outlet or point of concern (min)

tcs= peak flow time of concentration from the top of the catchment to the development site (min)

Qa= the peak post-development flow from the site for the discharge design storm with a duration equal to tc (l/s)

Qp= the peak pre-development flow from the site for the discharge design storm with a duration equal to tc (l/s)

 

 

The results are tabulated in Table 6.18.

 

Table 6.18 Computation of Permissible Site Discharge (PSD)

ARI Development tcs (min) tc (min) Q (l/s) a b PSD (l/s)
2 Pre 5 10 427.489      
2 Post 5 10 1025.974 7136.607 3749089.9 571.0

 

 

6.4.3.6 Determination of Site Storage Requirement (SSR)

As stated in Section 19.3.1 of MSMA (2000), the storage design storm for estimating the SSR is 10 year ARI.

 

In sizing the volume of the storage facility, the method assumes a triangular inflow hydrograph and an outflow hydrograph shape related to the type of storage adopted. These simplifications are acceptable providing the site catchment is small.

 

Typically, the critical storm duration that produces the largest required storage volume is different from the time of concentration used for peak flow estimation. Therefore storage volumes must be determined for a range of storm durations to find the maximum storage required.

 

The Site Storage Requirement (SSR) for the site in m3 is calculated using the formula:

 

 

 

The factors c and d are different for above-ground and below-ground storages due to differences in storage geometry and outflow characteristics.

 

For below-ground storage:

 

 

where

td= selected storm duration (min)

Qd= the peak post-development flow from the site for a storm duration equal to td (l/s)

 

The results for tc = 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 min are tabulated in Table 6.19 and plotted as shown Figure 6.12. It can be seen that the maximum SSR is 938.1 m3 for a storm duration of 45 min.

 

 

 

 

Table 6.19 Computation of Post Development Peaks and Site Storage Requirements (SSR)

ARI tc Id Impervious Area Pervious Area Sum Pre/Post Dev  PSD Below Ground Storage
LN(T)  (min)  (mm/hr) C A (ha) C A (ha) CA Q (l/s)  (l/s) c d SSR (m3)
10 5 291.00 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 1755.4 571.0 336.2902 21.7326 419.2
10 10 233.15 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 1406.5 571.0 324.0971 27.1242 633.2
10 15 196.83 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 1187.3 571.0 312.7751 32.1305 758.2
10 20 171.60 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 1035.2 571.0 302.0947 36.8531 835.5
10 25 152.93 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 922.5 571.0 291.9163 41.3538 883.9
10 30 138.46 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 835.3 571.0 282.1465 45.6738 913.4
10 35 126.88 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 765.4 571.0 272.7191 49.8423 930.0
10 40 117.37 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 708.0 571.0 263.5849 53.8812 937.4
10 45 109.40 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 659.9 571.0 254.7062 57.8072 938.1
10 50 102.61 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 619.0 571.0 246.0528 61.6335 933.9
10 55 96.74 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 583.6 571.0 237.6008 65.3708 926.0
10 60 91.62 0.9 2.1113 0.3 0.9049 2.1717 552.7 571.0 229.33 69.0280 915.5

 

 

Figure 6.12 Plot of SSR versus Storm Duration

 

 

 

 

 

6.5         Evaluation

The following changes in the design procedure for On-Site Detention between MSMA (2000) and (2011) are noted:

 

  1. The new method is based on nomograph and not based on formulas as in the first edition.
  2. The result in Table 20 shows that for Kuala Lumpur, MSMA (2011) gives PSD of about 20% of MSMA (2000) and SSR of about 190% of MSMA (2000).
  3. The result in Table 20 shows that for Kuala Lumpur, the PSD using ESM Method gives PSD of about 55% of MSMA (2000) and SSR of about 103% of MSMA (2000) using MSMA (2011) storm and discharge data.
  4. The result in Table 21 shows that for Pulau Pinang, MSMA (2011) gives PSD of 18% of MSMA (2000) and SSR of about 180% of MSMA (2000).
  5. The result in Table 21 shows that for Pulau Pinang, the PSD using ESM Method gives PSD of about 49% of MSMA (2000) and SSR of about 129% of MSMA (2000) using MSMA (2011) storm and discharge data.
  6. Problems using Table 5.A2 outside the 17 major towns in Peninsular Malaysia listed in the table which gives the maximum permissible site discharge (PSD), minimum Site Storage Requirement (SSR) and inlet values.
  7. Method is suitable only for Peninsula. No guidance for towns in East Malaysia e.g., Figure 5.A.1 and Table 5.A2 are for Peninsula.
  8. For East Malaysia, it may be necessary to apply the OSD method in MSMA (2000) since MSMA (2011) provides no guidance on this.

 

Table 6.20 Comparison of OSD Requirements using MSMA (2000, 2011) for Kuala Lumpur

  MSMA 2000 (A) MSMA 2011 (B) ESM (C) R=B/A R=C/A
PSD (L/S) 1093.6 220 597.5 0.2 0.55
SSR (M3) 700.9 1303.7 723.3 1.9 1.03

 

Table 6.21 Comparison of OSD Requirements using MSMA (2000, 2011) for Pulau Pinang

  MSMA 2000 (A) MSMA 2011 (B) ESM (C) R=B/A R=C/A
PSD 1169.6 210 571.0 0.18 0.49
SSR 728.7 1312.8 938.1 1.80 1.29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.    Changes in Sediment Basins

7.1         Criteria for Sizing of Wet and Dry Sediment Basins

Table 7.1 (Table 39.4 of MSMA, 2000) summarises the sizing criteria for wet/dry sediment basins. Listed in the table are the three different soil types and the design considerations which apply to sediment basin design and operation for each soil type.

Table 7.1 Sediment Basin Types and Design Considerations

Soil Description Soil Type Basin Type Design Considerations
Coarse-grained sand, sandy loam: less than 33%<0.02 mm C

 

Dry

 

Settling velocity, sediment storage.
Fine-grained loam, clay: more than 33%<0.02 mm F

 

Wet

 

Storm impoundment, sediment storage.
Dispersible fine-grained clays as per type F, more than 10% of dispersible material.

 

D

 

 

Wet

 

 

Storm impoundment, sediment storage, assisted flocculation.

 

7.2             Sediment Basins in MSMA (2000)

7.1.1       Dry Sediment Basin

Dry Sediment basins should be used on Type C soil- which is characterized by a high percentage of coarse particles, where less than one-third of particles are less than 0.02 mm in size.  Table 7.2 (Table 39.5 of MSMA, 2000) summarises the dry sediment basin sizing guidelines.

 

For construction projects lasting two years or less to complete, a three month design ARI is required, and for those taking two years or more, a six month design ARI is required.

 

Table 7.2 Dry Sediment Basin Sizing Guidelines in MSMA (2000) (After Table 39.5 of MSMA, 2000)

Parameter Design Storm

(mth ARI)

Time of Concentration of Basin Catchment (min)
    10 20 30 45 60
Surface Area

(m2/ha)

3 333 250 200 158 121
6 n/a 500 400 300 250
Total Volume

(m3/ha)

3 400 300 240 190 145
6 n/a 600 480 360 300

 

7.1.2       Wet Sediment Basin

Wet sediment basins should be used on Type F or Type D soils. The duration of the design event should be 5 days- time needed to achieve effective flocculation, settling and pumpout of the stormwater.

 

The 75th percentile 5-day rainfall event should be used as the design event. The 80th percentile 5-day event should be used if the construction site is upstream of an environmentally sensitive area, or if the construction period is more than 2 years.

 

Sizing guidelines for wet sediment basins for normal situations are given in Table 7.3 (Table 39.6 of MSMA, 2000).

 

 

 

 

 

Table 7.3 Wet Sediment Basin Sizing Guidelines in MSMA (2000) (Table 39.6 of MSMA, 2000)

Parameter Site Runoff Potential Magnitude of Design Storm Event in mm
    20 30 40 50 60
Settling Zone Volume

(m3/ha)

Moderate-high runoff 70 127 200 290 380
Very high runoff 100 167 260 340 440
Total Volume

(m3/ha)

Moderate-high runoff 105 190 300 435 570
Very high runoff 150 250 390 510 660

 

7.2             Sediment Basin Theory in MSMA (2011)

7.2.1       Criteria for Sizing of Sediment Basins

Table 7.4 (Table 1.3 in MSMA, 2011) requires temporary or permanent BMPs to be designed based on 50 and 40 mm, respectively, of rainfall applied to the catchments draining to the BMPs.

 

Table 7.4 Quality Control Design Criteria (Table 1.3 in MSMA, 2011)

Variables Criteria
Water Quality Volume ·         Temporary BMPs- 50 mm of rainfall applied to catchments draining to the BMPs.

·         Permanent BMPs- 40 mm of rainfall applied to catchments draining to the BMPs.

Primary Outlet Sizing Based on the peak flow calculated from the 3 month ARI event.
Secondary Outlet (Spillway) Sizing As per the ARIs recommended in the respective chapters of the individual BMPs.

 

There is a change of approach in MSMA (2011) where temporary or permanent BMPs are designed based on 50 or 40 mm of rainfall on the catchment, compared to MSMA (2000) where these were based on the 75th or 80th percentile 5 day storm for wet ponds.

 

Overall, the approach is MSMA (2011) is a lot simpler than MSMA (2000) as it does away with the need to compute the 75th and 80th percentile 5 day storm, and adopt 50 or 40 mm for temporary or permanent BMPs.

 

The changes in between design requirements for MSMA (2000 and 2011) are summarised in Table 7.5.

 

Table 7.5 Comparison of Design Requirements for Sediment Basins between MSMA (2000 and 2011)

MSMA (2000) MSMA (2011)
Construction Period Dry Sedimentation Basin Wet Sedimentation Basin Construction Period Dry

Sedimentation Basin

Wet Sedimentation Basin
<2 YEARS 3 Month ARI 75th Percentile 5 Day Rain Temporary

<18 mths

3 Month ARI 50 mm
>2 YEARS 6 Month ARI 80th Percentile 5 Day Rain Permanent

>18 mths

3 Month ARI 40 mm

 

 

7.2.2       Design of Dry Sediment Basins

In MSMA (2011), Table 7.6 (Table 12.18) summarises the dry sediment basin sizing guidelines. Note this is the same as Table 7.2 for 3 month ARI.

 

Table 7.6 Dry Sediment Basin Sizing Criteria in MSMA (2011) (Table 12.18 in MSMA, 2011)

Parameter Time of Concentration of Basin Catchment (min)
10 20 30 45 60
Surface Area (m2/ha) 333 250 200 158 121
Total Volume (m3/ha) 400 300 240 190 145

 

7.2.3       Design of Wet Sediment Basins

In MSMA (2011), Table 7.7 (Table 12.19) summarises the wet sediment basin sizing guidelines. Note this is the same as Table 7.3.

 

Instead of using the 75th or 80th percentile 5-day rainfall event for the magnitude of design storm in the above table, we can use the 50 and 40 mm rainfall depths for temporary and permanent BMPs according to Table 7.4.

 

Table 7.7 Wet Sediment Basin Sizing Volume (m3/ha) in MSMA (2011) (TABLE 12.19)

Parameter Site Runoff Potential Magnitude of Design Storm Event in mm
    20 30 40 50 60
Settling Zone Volume

(m3/ha)

Moderate-high runoff 70 127 200 290 380
Very high runoff 100 167 260 340 440
Total Volume

(m3/ha)

Moderate-high runoff 105 190 300 435 570
Very high runoff 150 250 390 510 660

 

7.3             Case Study on Design of a Dry Sediment Basin

This worked example uses a spreadsheet to size a dry sediment basin.

Problem: To design a dry sediment basin and outlet structures required for a construction site in Kuala Lumpur.

 

Relevant data are as follows:

  • Basin type= earth embankment and perforated outlet.
  • Soil type= sandy loam. Type C.
  • Construction period more than 2 years.
  • Area= 7.8 ha.
  • Compute overland flow time using Friend’s Formula where n=0.011, Lo= 50 m, S=0.3%.
  • Compute drain flow time for Ld= 870 m and V=1 m/s.

 

7.3.1       MSMA (2000)

The construction period is more than 2 years, hence the design storm= 6 month ARI.

  1. Determine Tc

 

Overland flow time (To) is estimated using Friend’s Formula:

where

n= 0.011 from Table 14.2 (MSMA, 2000) for paved surface

S= 0.3%

L (Overland sheet flow path length) = 50 m.

Applying the Friend’s Formula, To= 5.5 min.

 

Td=L/V= 870/1= 870 s= 14.5 min.

Hence, Tc = To + Td = 5.5+14.5 = 20 min

 

  1. Sizing of Sediment Basin

 

From Table 7.1 (Table 39.4 of MSMA, 2000), Soil Type= C

Construction time > 2 years

Design storm= 6 mth ARI

 

From Table 7.2 (Table 39.5 of MSMA, 2000), for the above Tc,

Required surface area= 500  m2/ha

Required total volume = 600 m3/ha

 

Catchment area= 7.8 ha

 

Surface area required= 500 x 7.8= 3900 m2

Total volume required= 600 x 7.8= 4680 m3

 

7.3.2       MSMA (2011)

  1. Determine Tc

Applying the same method of computation, Tc = To + Td = 5.5+14.5 = 20 min

 

  1. Sizing of Sediment Basin

From Table 7.6 (Table 12.18 of MSMA, 2011), for the above Tc,

Required surface area= 250  m2/ha

Required total volume = 300 m3/ha

 

Catchment area= 7.8 ha

Surface area required= 250 x 7.8= 1950 m2

Total volume required= 300 x 7.8=  2340 m3

 

7.4             Case Study on Design of a Wet Sediment Basin

This worked example uses a spreadsheet to size a wet sediment basin in Ipoh.

 

Problem: To design a wet sediment basin and outlet structures required for a construction site in Ipoh. Relevant data are as follows:

 

  • Basin type= earth embankment and perforated outlet.
  • Soil type= sandy loam. Type F.
  • Construction period less than 2 years.
  • Area= 8 ha.

 

7.4.1       MSMA (2000)

  1. Sizing of Sediment Basin

 

From Table 7.3 (Table 39.6 of MSMA, 2011), Soil Type= F

Construction time < 2 years

 

The 75th percentile 5-day storm for Ipoh is 36.75 mm from analysis.

 

From Table 7.3, for the 75th percentile 5-day storm with moderate-high runoff,

Required settling zone volume= 176 m3/ha

Required total volume = 264 m3/ha

 

Catchment area= 8 ha

Settling zone volume required= 176 x 8= 1408 m3

Total volume required= 264 x 8= 2112 m3

 

7.4.2       MSMA (2011)

  1. Sizing of Sediment Basin

 

From Table 7.7 (Table 12.19 of MSMA, 2011), Soil Type= F

Construction time < 2 years

Temporary BMP- 50 mm of Rainfall applied to catchment area.

From Table 7.7, for the 50 mm storm, with moderate-high runoff,

Required settling zone volume= 290 m3/ha

Required total volume = 435 m3/ha

 

Catchment area= 8 ha

Settling zone volume required= 290 x 8= 2320 m3

Total volume required= 435 x 8= 3480 m3

7.5             Evaluation

The results are summarized in Table 7.8. Below is an evaluation:

 

  1. The dry basin is to be used for more than 2 years, so it should be designed for 6 month ARI. In Table 2, there is data for 6 month ARI but not in Table 7.6 where the data is based on 3 month ARI.
  2. The results showed that the dry sediment basin volume using MSMA (2011) is half of that using MSMA (2000) for 6 month ARI design (for projects taking more than two years).
  3. The 75th percentile 5-day storm for Ipoh is 36.75 mm. This was used to determine the volumes in Table 3. But for temporary BMP- 50 mm of rainfall applied to catchment area and was used to read the volumes in Table 7.7. Hence the volumes are about 1.65 times higher using MSMA (2011).
  4. The wet sediment basin volume was 65% higher using MSMA (2011) compared to MSMA (2000) because of it was based on 50 mm of rainfall for temporary BMP in MSMA (2011), compared to the 75th percentile storm of 36.75 mm in MSMA (2000) which is lower.
  5. For locations where the 75th percentile 5-day storms are lower than 50 mm, it is expected the wet sedimentation basin volume will decrease compared to MSMA (2000) using MSMA (2011).

 

Table 7.8 Summary of Dry and Wet Sediment Basin Volumes based on MSMA (2000 and 2011)

  Dry Sediment Basin Wet Sediment Basin
  Total Volume (m3) Settling Volume (m3) Total Volume (m3)
MSMA (2000) (A) 4680 1408 2112
MSMA (2011) (B) 2340 2320 3480
B/A 0.5 1.65 1.65

8.    Changes in Detention Basins

8.1         General Approach

There is no change in the general approach in the design of detention basin as follows:

 

  • Computation of design storm of various ARI and durations.
  • Computation of temporal pattern for the design storms.
  • Determination of a loss model.
  • Estimation of inflow hydrographs to the basin using a hydrograph method.
  • Routing of the hydrographs through detention storage.
  • Check that the maximum basin outflow is less than or equal to the permissible major/minor flow.

 

8.2         Approach Using MSMA (2000 and 2011)

This section covers the major differences in the approach for the above in MSMA (2000 and 2011).

8.2.1       Design Storm

One of the major differences lies in the formula used to derive the design storm. Overall, the quality of the storm data in MSMA (2011) is better as the new data is more up-to-date. There are now 135 stations in MSMA (2011) compared to only 35 previously. Case Study No. 2 indicates an increase of up to 26% in storm intensities for Kuala Lumpur using MSMA (2011).

8.2.1.1  MSMA (2000)

 

In the second edition, the following polynomial equation (Equation 13.2 in MSMA, 2000) has been fitted to the published IDF curves for the 35 major urban centres in Malaysia:

 

where

RIt  is the average rainfall intensity (mm/hr) for ARI R and duration t

R   is the average return interval (years)

t    is the duration (minutes)

a to d are fitting constants dependent on ARI.

 

The fitted coefficients for the IDF curves for all the major cities are given in Appendix 13.A of MSMA (2000). The equation is strictly applicable to rainfall duration of 6 hours or less.

 

For short duration of less than 30 minutes in MSMA (2000), the intensities are computed as follows:

The design rainfall depth Pd for a short duration d (min) is given by:

 

where

P30 and P60 are the 30 min and 60 min rainfall depths, respectively, obtained from the published polynomial curves.

FD is the adjustment factor for storm duration based on Table 13.3 and Figure 13.3 of MSMA (2000).

8.2.1.2  MSMA (2011)

In MSMA (2011), the following empirical equation was fitted to the IDF data for 135 major urban centres in Malaysia:

where

i  is the Average rainfall intensity (mm/hr)

T is the Average return interval (years) for ARI of between 0.5 and 12 months and 2 and 100 years.

d is the Storm duration (hours) where d is between 0.0833 and 72 hours
, ?, ? and ? are the fitting constants dependent on the raingauge location. Refer Table 2.B1 in Appendix 2.B of MSMA (2011).

 

8.2.2       Temporal Pattern

MSMA (2000) divides the temporal pattern for east and west cost of Peninsular Malaysia. MSMA (2011), on the other hand, divides the whole peninsula into five regions.

 

In MSMA (2011), no mention of temporal pattern for East Malaysia- but in MSMA (2000), it is recommended that the temporal pattern for East Coast of Peninsula be used for Sabah and Sarawak.

8.2.2.1  MSMA (2000)

In MSMA (2000), the temporal pattern is covered in Section 13.3 of Chapter 13.

 

Appendix 13.B gives the design temporal patterns for East and West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

 

For east Malaysia, it recommends the use of temporal patterns for East Coast of Peninsula.

8.2.2.2  MSMA (2011)

In MSMA (2011), the temporal patterns to be used for a set of durations are given in Appendix 2.C for the following five regions:

 

  • Region 1- Terengganu and Kelantan
  • Region 2- Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka, Selangor and Pahang
  • Region 3- Perak, Kedah, Pulau Pinang and Perlis
  • Region 4- Mountainous Area
  • Region 5- Urban Area (Kuala Lumpur)

8.2.3       Loss Model in Time-Area Method

In MSMA (2011), the number of loss models has reduced. The Initial Loss-Proportional Loss Model and the Horton Model have been removed. Instead, there is only one loss model namely, the Initial Loss-Continuing Loss Model.  The parameter values are the same.

8.2.3.1  MSMA (2000)

 

Table 8.1 (Table 14.4 in MSMA, 2000) gives the recommended loss models for used in the Time-Area Method.

 

Table 8.1 Recommended Loss Models and Values for Hydrograph (Table 14.4 in MSMA, 2000)

8.2.3.2  MSMA (2000)

Table 8.2 (Table 2.6 in MSMA, 2011) gives the recommended loss models for used in the Time-Area Method in MSMA (2011).

 

Table 8.2 Recommended Loss Values for Rainfall Excess Estimation (Chow et al., 1988) (Table 2.6 in MSMA, 2011)

Catchment Condition

 

Initial loss (mm) Continuous Loss (mm/hr)
Impervious

 

1.5 0
Pervious 10 Sandy Soil: 10-25 mm/hr

Loam Soil: 3-10 mm/hr

Clay Soil: 0.5-3 mm/hr

 

8.3         Comparison

  • In the Time-Area Method computation, the temporal patterns used were based on the respective MSMA, while the same losses were adopted in both computations.
  • Case Study No. 2 showed that the storm intensity increased by up to 1.26 times between MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011).
  • Case Study No. 4 showed that the peak discharges increased by up to 1.27 times between MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011).
  • The difference is due primarily to the use of the temporal pattern for urban area (Region 5) in MSMA (2011) which is higher than that use in MSMA (2000).

 

 

8.4 Case Study on Detention Basin

8.4.1    Methodology

Some of the requirements for the design of a dry detention basin are as follows:

  • The primary outlets for detention basins shall be designed to reduce the post-development peak flows to below the pre-development peak flows for both the minor and major system design storm ARI.
  • The sizing of a detention basin requires the following data:
    • Inflow hydrograph
    • Stage-storage curve
    • Stage-discharge curve

 

The steps involved in the sizing of a storm outlet are as follows:

  • Step 1: The post-development hydrographs of a major/minor storm and various durations were computed from the Time-Area Method. The critical duration which gives the highest discharge was determined.
  • Step 2: Selecting a suitable outlet structure. A stage-discharge (or rating) curve is derived.
  • Step 3: Compute the basin stage-storage (or storage) curve by dividing the storage volume into slices of equal thickness and summing up the volume of these slices one by one from the bottom.
  • Step 4: Route using the Level-Pool Routing procedure, the critical storm hydrograph from the Time-Area method through the detention basin, using the stage-discharge-storage data above.
  • Step 5: Then determine the peak discharge and water level, check that the maximum basin outflow is less than or equal to the permissible major/minor flow.
  • Repeat Steps 2 to 5 until a suitable sized outlet is found.

 

8.4.2              Problem

Design a dry detention basin for a catchment located in Air Terjun, Sg Batu, Kuala Lumpur using MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011) as follows:

 

  • The losses are based on Table 14.4 of MSMA (2000) and Table 6 of MSMA (2011). For pre-development scenario, a pervious area of 10 mm initial losses and 25 mm/hr continuous losses is assumed. For post-development scenario, an impervious area with 1.5 mm initial losses and continuous loss of 0 mm/hr is assumed.
  • The time area curve is as follows: 85000, 100000, 200000, 250000, 300000, 180000.
  • Outlet use box culvert with 90 degree headwall.
  • A low flow pipe system with a capacity of 2 m3/s will bypass the basin and combine with the basin outflow in the downstream floodway.
  • Determine the percentage increase in the peak discharge using MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011).

 

8.4.3    Primary Minor Outlet

Results:

  • The hydrographs of a major/minor storm and various durations were computed from the Time-Area Method. The critical duration which gives the highest discharge was determined as shown in Table 5 to Table 8.14 for pre and post-development scenarios.
  • The stage-storage-discharge relationship is summarised in Table 3 and
    Table 8.4 and plotted in Figure 8.1 and Figure 8.2 respectively, for MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011).
  • After trial and error, 4 box culverts of 1.2 m by 2.1 m situated at Stage of 0 m RL was adopted.
  • Maximum discharges, water levels and the permissible discharges are summarised in Table 21 and Table 8.22.
  • The basin inflow and outflow hydrographs for 5 year storm of duration 30 minutes are shown in Table 15 and Table 8.16 and plotted as shown in Figure 8.3 and Figure 8.4.

 

8.4.4    Primary Major Outlet

Results:

  • The stage-storage-discharge relationship is summarised in Table 3 and
    Table 8.4 and plotted in Figure 8.1 and Figure 8.2 respectively, for MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011).
  • After trial and error, 2 box culverts of 1.2 m by 2.1 m with invert at the critical 5 year water levels was adopted.
  • Maximum discharges, water levels and the permissible discharges are summarised in Table 21 and Table 8.22.
  • The basin inflow and outflow hydrographs for 50 year storm of duration 30 minutes are shown in Table 17 and Table 8.18 and plotted as shown in Figure 8.5 and Figure 8.6.

 

8.4.5    Secondary Spillway

Results:

  • The stage-storage-discharge relationship is summarised in Table 3 and
    Table 8.4 and plotted in Figure 8.1 and Figure 8.2 respectively, for MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011).
  • After trial and error, a 3 m wide broad-crested spillway with 3(H):1(V) m side slopes as the secondary outlet was adopted.
  • Maximum discharges and water levels are summarised in Table 21 and Table 8.22.
  • The basin inflow and outflow hydrographs for 100 year storm of duration 30 minutes are shown Table 19 and Table 8.20 and plotted as shown in Figure 8.7 and Figure 8.8.
  • The embankment level is fixed at the highest water level of the secondary spillway plus a freeboard of 0.3 m.

 

 

 

 

 

8.5         Evaluation

The results of computation are evaluated in this section.

 

It can be seen that the storm intensity using MSMA (2011) is up to 1.26 times higher than that using MSMA (2000) as shown in Table 8.23.

 

The peak discharges computed using the Time-Area Method in MSMA (2011) is up to 1.27 times higher than that using MSMA (2000) as shown in Table 8.24.

 

The computed basin storage volumes using MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011) are tabulated as shown in Table 8.25.  It can be seen that the storage volume using MSMA (2011) is about 1.3 times higher than that using MSMA (2000).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Table 8.3 Basin Stage Storage Discharge Data (MSMA, 2000)

Stage H (m) Discharge Q (m3/s) Storage S (m3)
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.25 3.62 2512.53
0.50 7.14 5050.25
0.75 10.55 7613.34
1.00 13.85 10202.00
1.25 17.05 12816.41
1.50 20.15 15456.75
1.75 23.13 18123.22
2.00 26.02 20816.00
2.25 28.80 23535.28
2.50 31.47 26281.25
2.75 35.69 29054.09
3.00 39.77 31854.00
3.25 44.25 34681.16
3.50 49.04 37535.75
3.75 53.99 40417.97
4.00 59.03 43328.00
4.25 64.14 46266.03
4.50 69.28 49232.25
4.75 74.46 52226.84
5.00 79.64 55250.00
5.25 84.84 58301.91
5.50 90.02 61382.75
5.75 95.20 64492.72
6.00 100.36 67632.00
6.25 105.49 70800.78
6.50 110.60 73999.25
6.75 115.68 77227.59
7.00 120.72 80486.00

Table 8.4 Basin Stage Storage Discharge Data (MSMA, 2011)

Stage H (m) Q (m3/s) Storage S (m3)
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.25 3.62 2512.53
0.50 7.14 5050.25
0.75 10.55 7613.34
1.00 13.85 10202.00
1.25 17.05 12816.41
1.50 20.15 15456.75
1.75 23.13 18123.22
2.00 26.02 20816.00
2.25 28.80 23535.28
2.50 31.47 26281.25
2.75 35.69 29054.09
3.00 39.77 31854.00
3.25 43.71 34681.16
3.50 47.51 37535.75
3.75 51.16 40417.97
4.00 55.22 43328.00
4.25 59.59 46266.03
4.50 64.12 49232.25
4.75 68.74 52226.84
5.00 73.42 55250.00
5.25 78.15 58301.91
5.50 82.90 61382.75
5.75 87.66 64492.72
6.00 92.43 67632.00
6.25 97.20 70800.78
6.50 101.95 73999.25
6.75 106.69 77227.59
7.00 111.40 80486.00

 

 

 

Table 8.5 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (100 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Post Development (MSMA, 2000)

Time Rainfall Ratio Rainfall Losses ER Time-Area Curve Runoff Generated By the Effective Rainfall (mm) Hydrograph
(min)   (mm) (mm) (mm) (m2) 12.28 21.53 28.42 7.75 9.47 5.17 (m3/s)
0 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0.00           0.00
5 0.160 13.78 1.50 12.28 85,000 3.48 0.00         3.48
10 0.250 21.53 0.00 21.53 100,000 4.09 6.10 0.00       10.19
15 0.330 28.42 0.00 28.42 200,000 8.19 7.18 8.05 0.00     23.42
20 0.090 7.75 0.00 7.75 250,000 10.23 14.35 9.47 2.20 0.00   36.26
25 0.110 9.47 0.00 9.47 300,000 12.28 17.94 18.95 2.58 2.68 0.00 54.44
30 0.060 5.17 0.00 5.17 180,000 7.37 21.53 23.68 5.17 3.16 1.46 62.37
35           0.00 12.92 28.42 6.46 6.32 1.72 55.84
40           0.00 0.00 17.05 7.75 7.89 3.44 36.14
45           0.00 0.00 0.00 4.65 9.47 4.31 18.43
50           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.68 5.17 10.85
55           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.10 3.10
60           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

 

Table 8.6 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (100 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Post Development (MSMA, 2011)

Time Rainfall Ratio Rainfall Losses ER Time-Area Curve Runoff Generated By the Effective Rainfall (mm) Hydrograph
(min)   (mm) (mm) (mm) (m2) 9.07 17.54 43.57 17.87 11.55 7.84 (m3/s)
0 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0.00           0.00
5 0.097 10.57 1.50 9.07 85,000 2.57 0.00         2.57
10 0.161 17.54 0.00 17.54 100,000 3.02 4.97 0.00       7.99
15 0.400 43.57 0.00 43.57 200,000 6.04 5.85 12.35 0.00     24.24
20 0.164 17.87 0.00 17.87 250,000 7.56 11.69 14.52 5.06 0.00   38.83
25 0.106 11.55 0.00 11.55 300,000 9.07 14.62 29.05 5.96 3.27 0.00 61.96
30 0.072 7.84 0.00 7.84 180,000 5.44 17.54 36.31 11.91 3.85 2.22 77.27
35           0.00 10.52 43.57 14.89 7.70 2.61 79.30
40           0.00 0.00 26.14 17.87 9.62 5.23 58.86
45           0.00 0.00 0.00 10.72 11.55 6.54 28.80
50           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.93 7.84 14.77
55           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.71 4.71
60           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

 

 

 

Table 8.7 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (50 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Post Development (MSMA, 2000)

Time Rainfall Ratio Rainfall Losses ER Time-Area Curve Runoff Generated By the Effective Rainfall (mm) Hydrograph
(min)   (mm) (mm) (mm) (m2) 11.03 19.58 25.85 7.05 8.62 4.70 (m3/s)
0 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0.00           0.00
5 0.160 12.53 1.50 11.03 85,000 3.13 0.00         3.13
10 0.250 19.58 0.00 19.58 100,000 3.68 5.55 0.00       9.22
15 0.330 25.85 0.00 25.85 200,000 7.35 6.53 7.32 0.00     21.20
20 0.090 7.05 0.00 7.05 250,000 9.19 13.05 8.62 2.00 0.00   32.86
25 0.110 8.62 0.00 8.62 300,000 11.03 16.32 17.23 2.35 2.44 0.00 49.37
30 0.060 4.70 0.00 4.70 180,000 6.62 19.58 21.54 4.70 2.87 1.33 56.64
35           0.00 11.75 25.85 5.87 5.74 1.57 50.78
40           0.00 0.00 15.51 7.05 7.18 3.13 32.87
45           0.00 0.00 0.00 4.23 8.62 3.92 16.76
50           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.17 4.70 9.87
55           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.82 2.82
60           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

 

Table 8.8 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (50 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Post Development (MSMA, 2011)

Time Rainfall Ratio Rainfall Losses ER Time-Area Curve Runoff Generated By the Effective Rainfall (mm) Hydrograph
(min)   (mm) (mm) (mm) (m2) 7.94 15.68 38.95 15.97 10.32 7.01 (m3/s)
0 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0.00           0.00
5 0.097 9.44 1.50 7.94 85,000 2.25 0.00         2.25
10 0.161 15.68 0.00 15.68 100,000 2.65 4.44 0.00       7.09
15 0.400 38.95 0.00 38.95 200,000 5.30 5.23 11.03 0.00     21.56
20 0.164 15.97 0.00 15.97 250,000 6.62 10.45 12.98 4.52 0.00   34.58
25 0.106 10.32 0.00 10.32 300,000 7.94 13.06 25.96 5.32 2.92 0.00 55.22
30 0.072 7.01 0.00 7.01 180,000 4.77 15.68 32.46 10.65 3.44 1.99 68.97
35           0.00 9.41 38.95 13.31 6.88 2.34 70.88
40           0.00 0.00 23.37 15.97 8.60 4.67 52.61
45           0.00 0.00 0.00 9.58 10.32 5.84 25.74
50           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.19 7.01 13.20
55           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.21 4.21
60           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 8.9 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (5 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Post Development (MSMA, 2000)

Time Rainfall Ratio Rainfall Losses ER Time-Area Curve Runoff Generated By the Effective Rainfall (mm) Hydrograph
(min)   (mm) (mm) (mm) (m2) 7.93 14.73 19.45 5.30 6.48 3.54 (m3/s)
0 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0.00           0.00
5 0.160 9.43 1.50 7.93 85,000 2.25 0.00         2.25
10 0.250 14.73 0.00 14.73 100,000 2.64 4.17 0.00       6.82
15 0.330 19.45 0.00 19.45 200,000 5.29 4.91 5.51 0.00     15.71
20 0.090 5.30 0.00 5.30 250,000 6.61 9.82 6.48 1.50 0.00   24.41
25 0.110 6.48 0.00 6.48 300,000 7.93 12.28 12.96 1.77 1.84 0.00 36.78
30 0.060 3.54 0.00 3.54 180,000 4.76 14.73 16.21 3.54 2.16 1.00 42.39
35           0.00 8.84 19.45 4.42 4.32 1.18 38.21
40           0.00 0.00 11.67 5.30 5.40 2.36 24.73
45           0.00 0.00 0.00 3.18 6.48 2.95 12.61
50           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.89 3.54 7.43
55           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.12 2.12
60           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

 

Table 8.10 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (5 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Post Development (MSMA, 2011)

Time Rainfall Ratio Rainfall Losses ER Time-Area Curve Runoff Generated By the Effective Rainfall (mm) Hydrograph
(min)   (mm) (mm) (mm) (m2) 5.00 10.80 26.82 11.00 7.11 4.83 (m3/s)
0 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0.00           0.00
5 0.097 6.50 1.50 5.00 85,000 1.42 0.00         1.42
10 0.161 10.80 0.00 10.80 100,000 1.67 3.06 0.00       4.73
15 0.400 26.82 0.00 26.82 200,000 3.34 3.60 7.60 0.00     14.53
20 0.164 11.00 0.00 11.00 250,000 4.17 7.20 8.94 3.12 0.00   23.42
25 0.106 7.11 0.00 7.11 300,000 5.00 9.00 17.88 3.67 2.01 0.00 37.56
30 0.072 4.83 0.00 4.83 180,000 3.00 10.80 22.35 7.33 2.37 1.37 47.22
35           0.00 6.48 26.82 9.16 4.74 1.61 48.81
40           0.00 0.00 16.09 11.00 5.92 3.22 36.23
45           0.00 0.00 0.00 6.60 7.11 4.02 17.73
50           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.26 4.83 9.09
55           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.90 2.90
60           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 8.11 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (50 Year ARI, 60 Min)- Pre Development (MSMA, 2000)

Time Rainfall Ratio Rainfall Losses ER Time-Area Curve Runoff Generated By the Effective Rainfall (mm) Hydrograph
(min)   (mm) (mm) (mm) (m2) 0.00 0.96 14.81 9.98 21.24 8.07 6.86 3.65 2.74 1.03 0.73 0.00 (m3/s)
0 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0.00                       0.00
5 0.039 3.92 3.92 0.00 85,000 0.00 0.00                     0.00
10 0.070 7.04 6.08 0.96 100,000 0.00 0.27 0.00                   0.27
15 0.168 16.89 2.08 14.81 200,000 0.00 0.32 4.20 0.00                 4.52
20 0.120 12.06 2.08 9.98 250,000 0.00 0.64 4.94 2.83 0.00               8.40
25 0.232 23.33 2.08 21.24 300,000 0.00 0.80 9.87 3.33 6.02 0.00             20.02
30 0.101 10.15 2.08 8.07 180,000 0.00 0.96 12.34 6.65 7.08 2.29 0.00           29.32
35 0.089 8.95 2.08 6.86 0 0.00 0.57 14.81 8.32 14.16 2.69 1.95 0.00         42.50
40 0.057 5.73 2.08 3.65 0 0.00 0.00 8.88 9.98 17.70 5.38 2.29 1.03 0.00       45.27
45 0.048 4.83 2.08 2.74 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.99 21.24 6.73 4.58 1.22 0.78 0.00     40.53
50 0.031 3.12 2.08 1.03 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12.75 8.07 5.72 2.43 0.91 0.29 0.00   30.18
55 0.028 2.82 2.08 0.73 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.84 6.86 3.04 1.83 0.34 0.21 0.00 17.13
60 0.017 1.71 1.71 0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.12 3.65 2.29 0.69 0.24 0.00 10.98
65           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.19 2.74 0.86 0.49 0.00 6.28
70           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.65 1.03 0.61 0.00 3.29
75           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.62 0.73 0.00 1.35
80           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.44 0.00 0.43
85           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
90           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

 

Table 8.12 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (50 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Pre Development (MSMA, 2011)

Time Rainfall Ratio Rainfall Losses ER Time-Area Curve Runoff Generated By the Effective Rainfall (mm) Hydrograph
(min)   (mm) (mm) (mm) (m2) 0.00 13.03 36.86 13.88 8.24 4.93 (m3/s)
0 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0.00           0.00
5 0.097 9.44 9.44 0.00 85,000 0.00 0.00         0.00
10 0.161 15.68 2.64 13.03 100,000 0.00 3.69 0.00       3.69
15 0.400 38.95 2.08 36.86 200,000 0.00 4.34 10.44 0.00     14.79
20 0.164 15.97 2.08 13.88 250,000 0.00 8.69 12.29 3.93 0.00   24.91
25 0.106 10.32 2.08 8.24 300,000 0.00 10.86 24.58 4.63 2.33 0.00 42.40
30 0.072 7.01 2.08 4.93 180,000 0.00 13.03 30.72 9.26 2.75 1.40 57.15
35           0.00 7.82 36.86 11.57 5.49 1.64 63.39
40           0.00 0.00 22.12 13.88 6.86 3.28 46.15
45           0.00 0.00 0.00 8.33 8.24 4.11 20.67
50           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.94 4.93 9.87
55           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.96 2.96
60           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

 

 

 

 

 

Table 8.13 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (5 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Pre Development (MSMA, 2000)

Time Rainfall Ratio Rainfall Losses ER Time-Area Curve Runoff Generated By the Effective Rainfall (mm) Hydrograph
(min)   (mm) (mm) (mm) (m2) 0.00 12.65 17.36 3.22 4.40 1.45 (m3/s)
0 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0.00           0.00
5 0.160 9.43 10.00 0.00 85,000 0.00 0.00         0.00
10 0.250 14.73 2.08 12.65 100,000 0.00 3.58 0.00       3.58
15 0.330 19.45 2.08 17.36 200,000 0.00 4.22 4.92 0.00     9.14
20 0.090 5.30 2.08 3.22 250,000 0.00 8.43 5.79 0.91 0.00   15.13
25 0.110 6.48 2.08 4.40 300,000 0.00 10.54 11.58 1.07 1.25 0.00 24.44
30 0.060 3.54 2.08 1.45 180,000 0.00 12.65 14.47 2.15 1.47 0.41 31.14
35           0.00 7.59 17.36 2.68 2.93 0.48 31.05
40           0.00 0.00 10.42 3.22 3.67 0.97 18.27
45           0.00 0.00 0.00 1.93 4.40 1.21 7.54
50           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.64 1.45 4.09
55           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.87 0.87
60           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

 

Table 8.14 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (5 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Pre Development (MSMA, 2011)

Time Rainfall Ratio Rainfall Losses ER Time-Area Curve Runoff Generated By the Effective Rainfall (mm) Hydrograph
(min)   (mm) (mm) (mm) (m2) 0.00 8.71 24.74 8.91 5.02 2.74 (m3/s)
0 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0.00           0.00
5 0.097 6.50 10.00 0.00 85,000 0.00 0.00         0.00
10 0.161 10.80 2.08 8.71 100,000 0.00 2.47 0.00       2.47
15 0.400 26.82 2.08 24.74 200,000 0.00 2.90 7.01 0.00     9.91
20 0.164 11.00 2.08 8.91 250,000 0.00 5.81 8.25 2.53 0.00   16.58
25 0.106 7.11 2.08 5.02 300,000 0.00 7.26 16.49 2.97 1.42 0.00 28.15
30 0.072 4.83 2.08 2.74 180,000 0.00 8.71 20.61 5.94 1.67 0.78 37.72
35           0.00 5.23 24.74 7.43 3.35 0.91 41.66
40           0.00 0.00 14.84 8.91 4.19 1.83 29.77
45           0.00 0.00 0.00 5.35 5.02 2.29 12.66
50           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.01 2.74 5.76
55           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.65 1.65
60           0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 8.15 Result of Level Pool Routing through the Detention Basin (5 Year ARI, 30 Min) (MSMA, 2000)

time step t (min) I Ij+I(j+1) (2Sj/dt)-Qj (2S(j+1)/dt)+Q(j+1) Q(j+1) H (m) Stage H (m) Q (m3/s) Storage S (m3) (2S/dt)+Q
j 0 0.00 0.0000 0 0 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
j+1 1 0.05 0.0493 0.0452 0.0493 0.0020 0.0001 0.25 3.62 2512.53 87.37
j+2 2 0.10 0.1479 0.1771 0.1932 0.0080 0.0006 0.50 7.14 5050.25 175.48
j+3 3 0.15 0.2465 0.3886 0.4237 0.0176 0.0012 0.75 10.55 7613.34 264.32
j+4 4 0.20 0.3452 0.6729 0.7337 0.0304 0.0021 1.00 13.85 10202.00 353.92
j+5 5 0.25 0.4438 1.0242 1.1167 0.0463 0.0032 1.25 17.05 12816.41 444.26
j+6 6 1.16 1.4072 2.2299 2.4314 0.1008 0.0070 1.50 20.15 15456.75 535.37
j+7 7 2.07 3.2355 5.0125 5.4654 0.2265 0.0156 1.75 23.13 18123.22 627.24
j+8 8 2.99 5.0638 9.2412 10.0763 0.4176 0.0288 2.00 26.02 20816.00 719.89
j+9 9 3.90 6.8921 14.7962 16.1333 0.6686 0.0462 2.25 28.80 23535.28 813.31
j+10 10 4.82 8.7204 21.5676 23.5167 0.9745 0.0673 2.50 31.47 26281.25 907.51
j+11 11 6.60 11.4125 30.2468 32.9802 1.3667 0.0944 2.75 34.04 29054.09 1002.51
j+12 12 8.37 14.9684 41.4678 45.2152 1.8737 0.1294 3.00 36.50 31854.00 1098.30
j+13 13 10.15 18.5243 55.0201 59.9921 2.4860 0.1717 3.25 38.86 34681.16 1194.90
j+14 14 11.93 22.0802 70.7103 77.1002 3.1950 0.2206 3.50 41.11 37535.75 1292.30
j+15 15 13.71 25.6361 88.3889 96.3463 3.9787 0.2755 3.75 43.26 40417.97 1390.53
j+16 16 15.45 29.1555 107.8954 117.5444 4.8245 0.3356 4.00 45.30 43328.00 1489.57
j+17 17 17.19 32.6385 129.0503 140.5339 5.7418 0.4008 4.25 47.24 46266.03 1589.44
j+18 18 18.93 36.1215 151.7222 165.1719 6.7248 0.4708 4.50 49.07 49232.25 1690.15
j+19 19 20.67 39.6046 175.8381 191.3268 7.7444 0.5446 4.75 50.80 52226.84 1791.69
j+20 20 22.41 43.0876 201.3183 218.9257 8.8037 0.6223 5.00 52.42 55250.00 1894.08
j+21 21 24.89 47.3014 228.7329 248.6197 9.9434 0.7058 5.25 53.93 58301.91 1997.33
j+22 22 27.36 52.2459 258.6577 280.9788 11.1605 0.7965 5.50 55.34 61382.75 2101.44
j+23 23 29.83 57.1904 290.9545 315.8481 12.4468 0.8938 5.75 56.65 64492.72 2206.41
j+24 24 32.30 62.1349 325.4483 353.0894 13.8205 0.9977 6.00 57.85 67632.00 2312.25
j+25 25 34.78 67.0794 362.0907 392.5277 15.2185 1.1068 6.25 58.94 70800.78 2418.97
j+26 26 35.90 70.6755 399.4790 432.7662 16.6436 1.2182 6.50 59.93 73999.25 2526.58
j+27 27 37.02 72.9230 436.3891 472.4021 18.0065 1.3272 6.75 60.82 77227.59 2635.07
j+28 28 38.15 75.1706 472.8867 511.5597 19.3365 1.4347 7.00 61.60 80486.00 2744.46
j+29 29 39.27 77.4182 509.0427 550.3050 20.6312 1.5406        
j+30 30 40.39 79.6658 544.9471 588.7085 21.8807 1.6451        
j+31 31 39.56 79.9521 578.7827 624.8992 23.0582 1.7436        
j+32 32 38.72 78.2770 608.9344 657.0597 24.0627 1.8305        
j+33 33 37.88 76.6019 635.6380 685.5363 24.9491 1.9073        
j+34 34 37.04 74.9268 659.1083 710.5648 25.7283 1.9748        
j+35 35 36.21 73.2517 679.5811 732.3600 26.3895 2.0334        
j+36 36 33.51 69.7190 695.5135 749.3001 26.8933 2.0787        
j+37 37 30.82 64.3288 705.4285 759.8422 27.2069 2.1069        
j+38 38 28.12 58.9385 709.6841 764.3670 27.3415 2.1190        
j+39 39 25.43 53.5483 708.6169 763.2324 27.3077 2.1160        
j+40 40 22.73 48.1581 702.5437 756.7750 27.1157 2.0987        
j+41 41 20.31 43.0389 692.0171 745.5826 26.7827 2.0688        
j+42 42 17.88 38.1908 677.5570 730.2079 26.3254 2.0276        
j+43 43 15.46 33.3428 659.4224 710.8998 25.7387 1.9758        
j+44 44 13.04 28.4947 637.8706 687.9171 25.0232 1.9137        
j+45 45 10.61 23.6466 613.1143 661.5172 24.2014 1.8425        
j+46 46 9.57 20.1854 586.6537 633.2997 23.3230 1.7663        
j+47 47 8.54 18.1110 559.9585 604.7647 22.4031 1.6888        
j+48 48 7.50 16.0366 533.0610 575.9951 21.4670 1.6105        
j+49 49 6.46 13.9622 505.9745 547.0233 20.5244 1.5317        
j+50 50 5.43 11.8879 478.7612 517.8624 19.5506 1.4520        
j+51 51 4.36 9.7899 451.4412 488.5512 18.5550 1.3715        
j+52 52 3.30 7.6684 423.9995 459.1095 17.5550 1.2907        
j+53 53 2.24 5.5469 396.4873 429.5464 16.5295 1.2093        
j+54 54 1.18 3.4253 368.9526 399.9126 15.4800 1.1273        
j+55 55 0.12 1.3038 341.3969 370.2564 14.4297 1.0452        
j+56 56 0.10 0.2187 314.8210 341.6156 13.3973 0.9657        
j+57 57 0.07 0.1701 290.1608 314.9912 12.4152 0.8914        
j+58 58 0.05 0.1215 267.2749 290.2823 11.5037 0.8224        
j+59 59 0.02 0.0729 246.0324 267.3478 10.6577 0.7584        
j+60 60 0.00 0.0243 226.3666 246.0567 9.8450 0.6986        
j+61 61 0 0.0000 208.1881 226.3666 9.0893 0.6432        
j+62 62 0 0.0000 191.4050 208.1881 8.3915 0.5920        
j+63 63 0 0.0000 175.9103 191.4050 7.7474 0.5448        
j+64 64 0 0.0000 161.6051 175.9103 7.1526 0.5012        
j+65 65 0 0.0000 148.4400 161.6051 6.5825 0.4606        
j+66 66 0 0.0000 136.3256 148.4400 6.0572 0.4233        
j+67 67 0 0.0000 125.1778 136.3256 5.5739 0.3889        
j+68 68 0 0.0000 114.9197 125.1778 5.1291 0.3573        
j+69 69 0 0.0000 105.4801 114.9197 4.7198 0.3282        
j+70 70 0 0.0000 96.7938 105.4801 4.3431 0.3014        
j+71 71 0 0.0000 88.8007 96.7938 3.9966 0.2767        
j+72 72 0 0.0000 81.4454 88.8007 3.6776 0.2541        
j+73 73 0 0.0000 74.6953 81.4454 3.3750 0.2330        
j+74 74 0 0.0000 68.5046 74.6953 3.0953 0.2137        
j+75 75 0 0.0000 62.8270 68.5046 2.8388 0.1960        
j+76 76 0 0.0000 57.6200 62.8270 2.6035 0.1798        
j+77 77 0 0.0000 52.8445 57.6200 2.3877 0.1649        
j+78 78 0 0.0000 48.4648 52.8445 2.1898 0.1512        
j+79 79 0 0.0000 44.4481 48.4648 2.0084 0.1387        
j+80 80 0 0.0000 40.7643 44.4481 1.8419 0.1272        
j+81 81 0 0.0000 37.3858 40.7643 1.6892 0.1166        
j+82 82 0 0.0000 34.2873 37.3858 1.5492 0.1070        
j+83 83 0 0.0000 31.4456 34.2873 1.4208 0.0981        
j+83 84 0 0.0000 28.8394 31.4456 1.3031 0.0900        
j+83 85 0 0.0000 26.4493 28.8394 1.1951 0.0825        
j+83 86 0 0.0000 24.2572 26.4493 1.0960 0.0757        
j+83 87 0 0.0000 22.2468 24.2572 1.0052 0.0694        
j+83 88 0 0.0000 20.4030 22.2468 0.9219 0.0637        
j+83 89 0 0.0000 18.7120 20.4030 0.8455 0.0584        
j+83 90 0 0.0000 17.1612 18.7120 0.7754 0.0535        
j+83 91 0 0.0000 15.7389 17.1612 0.7111 0.0491        
j+83 92 0 0.0000 14.4345 15.7389 0.6522 0.0450        
j+83 93 0 0.0000 13.2382 14.4345 0.5982 0.0413        
j+83 94 0 0.0000 12.1410 13.2382 0.5486 0.0379        
j+83 95 0 0.0000 11.1348 12.1410 0.5031 0.0347        
j+83 96 0 0.0000 10.2119 11.1348 0.4614 0.0319        
j+83 97 0 0.0000 9.3656 10.2119 0.4232 0.0292        
j+83 98 0 0.0000 8.5894 9.3656 0.3881 0.0268        
j+83 99 0 0.0000 7.8775 8.5894 0.3559 0.0246        
j+83 100 0 0.0000 7.2246 7.8775 0.3264 0.0225        
j+83 101 0 0.0000 6.6258 7.2246 0.2994 0.0207        
j+83 102 0 0.0000 6.0767 6.6258 0.2746 0.0190        
j+83 103 0 0.0000 5.5731 6.0767 0.2518 0.0174        
j+83 104 0 0.0000 5.1112 5.5731 0.2309 0.0159        
j+83 105 0 0.0000 4.6876 5.1112 0.2118 0.0146        
j+83 106 0 0.0000 4.2991 4.6876 0.1943 0.0134        
j+83 107 0 0.0000 3.9428 4.2991 0.1782 0.0123        
j+83 108 0 0.0000 3.6160 3.9428 0.1634 0.0113        
j+83 109 0 0.0000 3.3163 3.6160 0.1498 0.0103        
j+83 110 0 0.0000 3.0415 3.3163 0.1374 0.0095        
j+83 111 0 0.0000 2.7894 3.0415 0.1260 0.0087        
j+83 112 0 0.0000 2.5582 2.7894 0.1156 0.0080        
j+83 113 0 0.0000 2.3462 2.5582 0.1060 0.0073        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 8.16 Result of Level Pool Routing through the Detention Basin (5 Year ARI, 30 min) (MSMA, 2011)

time step t (min) I Ij+I(j+1) (2Sj/dt)-Qj (2S(j+1)/dt)+Q(j+1) Q(j+1) H (m) Stage H (m) Q (m3/s) Storage S (m3) (2S/dt)+Q
j 0 0.00 0.0000 0 0 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
j+1 1 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.25 3.62 2512.53 87.37
j+2 2 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.50 7.14 5050.25 175.48
j+3 3 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.75 10.55 7613.34 264.32
j+4 4 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.00 13.85 10202.00 353.92
j+5 5 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.25 17.05 12816.41 444.26
j+6 6 0.55 0.5453 0.5001 0.5453 0.0226 0.0016 1.50 20.15 15456.75 535.37
j+7 7 1.09 1.6360 1.9590 2.1361 0.0885 0.0061 1.75 23.13 18123.22 627.24
j+8 8 1.64 2.7266 4.2973 4.6856 0.1942 0.0134 2.00 26.02 20816.00 719.89
j+9 9 2.18 3.8172 7.4420 8.1145 0.3363 0.0232 2.25 28.80 23535.28 813.31
j+10 10 2.73 4.9079 11.3264 12.3499 0.5118 0.0353 2.50 31.47 26281.25 907.51
j+11 11 4.69 7.4146 17.1877 18.7409 0.7766 0.0536 2.75 34.04 29054.09 1002.51
j+12 12 6.65 11.3373 26.1609 28.5250 1.1821 0.0816 3.00 36.50 31854.00 1098.30
j+13 13 8.61 15.2600 37.9879 41.4209 1.7165 0.1185 3.25 38.86 34681.16 1194.90
j+14 14 10.57 19.1827 52.4324 57.1707 2.3691 0.1636 3.50 41.11 37535.75 1292.30
j+15 15 12.53 23.1054 69.2774 75.5379 3.1302 0.2161 3.75 43.26 40417.97 1390.53
j+16 16 14.31 26.8446 88.1825 96.1220 3.9698 0.2748 4.00 45.30 43328.00 1489.57
j+17 17 16.09 30.4002 108.8508 118.5827 4.8659 0.3386 4.25 47.24 46266.03 1589.44
j+18 18 17.87 33.9558 131.1417 142.8066 5.8325 0.4073 4.50 49.07 49232.25 1690.15
j+19 19 19.64 37.5114 154.9257 168.6531 6.8637 0.4806 4.75 50.80 52226.84 1791.69
j+20 20 21.42 41.0670 180.1458 195.9927 7.9234 0.5577 5.00 52.42 55250.00 1894.08
j+21 21 24.25 45.6722 207.6816 225.8180 9.0682 0.6416 5.25 53.93 58301.91 1997.33
j+22 22 27.08 51.3269 238.3242 259.0085 10.3421 0.7350 5.50 55.34 61382.75 2101.44
j+23 23 29.90 56.9817 271.9278 295.3058 11.6890 0.8365 5.75 56.65 64492.72 2206.41
j+24 24 32.73 62.6364 308.2898 334.5642 13.1372 0.9460 6.00 57.85 67632.00 2312.25
j+25 25 35.56 68.2911 347.2735 376.5809 14.6537 1.0627 6.25 58.94 70800.78 2418.97
j+26 26 37.49 73.0498 387.9174 420.3232 16.2029 1.1838 6.50 59.93 73999.25 2526.58
j+27 27 39.42 76.9123 429.3311 464.8297 17.7493 1.3064 6.75 60.82 77227.59 2635.07
j+28 28 41.35 80.7748 471.5317 510.1060 19.2871 1.4307 7.00 61.60 80486.00 2744.46
j+29 29 43.28 84.6373 514.5251 556.1691 20.8220 1.5566        
j+30 30 45.22 88.4999 558.3320 603.0250 22.3465 1.6841        
j+31 31 45.53 90.7497 601.4531 649.0817 23.8143 1.8089        
j+32 32 45.85 91.3868 642.4869 692.8399 25.1765 1.9270        
j+33 33 46.17 92.0240 681.6040 734.5109 26.4534 2.0391        
j+34 34 46.49 92.6611 718.9934 774.2652 27.6359 2.1455        
j+35 35 46.81 93.2983 754.7578 812.2916 28.7669 2.2473        
j+36 36 44.29 91.1011 786.4170 845.8588 29.7209 2.3364        
j+37 37 41.78 86.0696 811.5333 872.4866 30.4766 2.4070        
j+38 38 39.26 81.0381 830.4782 892.5714 31.0466 2.4604        
j+39 39 36.75 76.0066 843.6019 906.4849 31.4415 2.4973        
j+40 40 34.23 70.9752 851.2538 914.5771 31.6616 2.5186        
j+41 41 30.53 64.7591 852.6121 916.0130 31.7004 2.5224        
j+42 42 26.83 57.3585 846.8964 909.9706 31.5371 2.5065        
j+43 43 23.13 49.9579 834.5180 896.8543 31.1682 2.4717        
j+44 44 19.43 42.5573 815.8616 877.0753 30.6068 2.4192        
j+45 45 15.73 35.1567 791.2836 851.0183 29.8674 2.3501        
j+46 46 14.00 29.7292 762.9811 821.0127 29.0158 2.2705        
j+47 47 12.27 26.2747 733.0923 789.2558 28.0818 2.1856        
j+48 48 10.55 22.8203 701.7325 755.9125 27.0900 2.0964        
j+49 49 8.82 19.3658 668.9894 721.0983 26.0545 2.0032        
j+50 50 7.09 15.9114 635.0420 684.9007 24.9293 1.9056        
j+51 51 5.85 12.9450 600.4266 647.9871 23.7802 1.8060        
j+52 52 4.61 10.4669 565.6885 610.8935 22.6025 1.7055        
j+53 53 3.37 7.9887 530.8939 573.6771 21.3916 1.6042        
j+54 54 2.14 5.5105 496.0466 536.4044 20.1789 1.5028        
j+55 55 0.90 3.0323 461.2537 499.0789 18.9126 1.4004        
j+56 56 0.72 1.6139 427.5023 462.8676 17.6826 1.3010        
j+57 57 0.54 1.2552 395.7543 428.7575 16.5016 1.2071        
j+58 58 0.36 0.8966 365.9219 396.6509 15.3645 1.1182        
j+59 59 0.18 0.5380 337.8693 366.4598 14.2953 1.0347        
j+60 60 0.00 0.1793 311.5171 338.0486 13.2657 0.9557        
j+61 61 0 0.0000 286.9431 311.5171 12.2870 0.8817        
j+62 62 0 0.0000 264.1820 286.9431 11.3805 0.8131        
j+63 63 0 0.0000 243.1006 264.1820 10.5407 0.7496        
j+64 64 0 0.0000 223.6374 243.1006 9.7316 0.6903        
j+65 65 0 0.0000 205.6684 223.6374 8.9845 0.6355        
j+66 66 0 0.0000 189.0788 205.6684 8.2948 0.5850        
j+67 67 0 0.0000 173.7626 189.0788 7.6581 0.5383        
j+68 68 0 0.0000 159.6274 173.7626 7.0676 0.4951        
j+69 69 0 0.0000 146.6202 159.6274 6.5036 0.4550        
j+70 70 0 0.0000 134.6510 146.6202 5.9846 0.4181        
j+71 71 0 0.0000 123.6369 134.6510 5.5071 0.3842        
j+72 72 0 0.0000 113.5017 123.6369 5.0676 0.3529        
j+73 73 0 0.0000 104.1753 113.5017 4.6632 0.3241        
j+74 74 0 0.0000 95.5931 104.1753 4.2911 0.2977        
j+75 75 0 0.0000 87.6958 95.5931 3.9487 0.2733        
j+76 76 0 0.0000 80.4286 87.6958 3.6336 0.2509        
j+77 77 0 0.0000 73.7628 80.4286 3.3329 0.2301        
j+78 78 0 0.0000 67.6494 73.7628 3.0567 0.2111        
j+79 79 0 0.0000 62.0427 67.6494 2.8034 0.1936        
j+80 80 0 0.0000 56.9007 62.0427 2.5710 0.1775        
j+81 81 0 0.0000 52.1848 56.9007 2.3579 0.1628        
j+82 82 0 0.0000 47.8598 52.1848 2.1625 0.1493        
j+83 83 0 0.0000 43.8932 47.8598 1.9833 0.1369        
j+83 84 0 0.0000 40.2554 43.8932 1.8189 0.1256        
j+83 85 0 0.0000 36.9191 40.2554 1.6682 0.1152        
j+83 86 0 0.0000 33.8593 36.9191 1.5299 0.1056        
j+83 87 0 0.0000 31.0531 33.8593 1.4031 0.0969        
j+83 88 0 0.0000 28.4794 31.0531 1.2868 0.0889        
j+83 89 0 0.0000 26.1191 28.4794 1.1802 0.0815        
j+83 90 0 0.0000 23.9544 26.1191 1.0824 0.0747        
j+83 91 0 0.0000 21.9691 23.9544 0.9927 0.0685        
j+83 92 0 0.0000 20.1483 21.9691 0.9104 0.0629        
j+83 93 0 0.0000 18.4784 20.1483 0.8349 0.0577        
j+83 94 0 0.0000 16.9470 18.4784 0.7657 0.0529        
j+83 95 0 0.0000 15.5424 16.9470 0.7023 0.0485        
j+83 96 0 0.0000 14.2543 15.5424 0.6441 0.0445        
j+83 97 0 0.0000 13.0729 14.2543 0.5907 0.0408        
j+83 98 0 0.0000 11.9894 13.0729 0.5417 0.0374        
j+83 99 0 0.0000 10.9958 11.9894 0.4968 0.0343        
j+83 100 0 0.0000 10.0844 10.9958 0.4557 0.0315        
j+83 101 0 0.0000 9.2487 10.0844 0.4179 0.0289        
j+83 102 0 0.0000 8.4821 9.2487 0.3833 0.0265        
j+83 103 0 0.0000 7.7791 8.4821 0.3515 0.0243        
j+83 104 0 0.0000 7.1344 7.7791 0.3224 0.0223        
j+83 105 0 0.0000 6.5431 7.1344 0.2956 0.0204        
j+83 106 0 0.0000 6.0008 6.5431 0.2711 0.0187        
j+83 107 0 0.0000 5.5035 6.0008 0.2487 0.0172        
j+83 108 0 0.0000 5.0474 5.5035 0.2281 0.0157        
j+83 109 0 0.0000 4.6291 5.0474 0.2092 0.0144        
j+83 110 0 0.0000 4.2454 4.6291 0.1918 0.0132        
j+83 111 0 0.0000 3.8935 4.2454 0.1759 0.0121        
j+83 112 0 0.0000 3.5709 3.8935 0.1613 0.0111        
j+83 113 0 0.0000 3.2749 3.5709 0.1480 0.0102        
j+83 114 0 0.0000 3.0035 3.2749 0.1357 0.0094        
j+83 115 0 0.0000 2.7546 3.0035 0.1245 0.0086        
j+83 116 0 0.0000 2.5263 2.7546 0.1141 0.0079        
j+83 117 0 0.0000 2.3169 2.5263 0.1047 0.0072        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 8.17 Result of Level Pool Routing through the Detention Basin (50 YEAR ARI, 30 min) (MSMA, 2000)

time step t (min) I Ij+I(j+1) (2Sj/dt)-Qj (2S(j+1)/dt)+Q(j+1) Q(j+1) H (m) Stage H (m) Q (m3/s) Storage S (m3) (2S/dt)+Q
j 0 0.00 0.0000 0 0 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
j+1 1 0.23 0.2251 0.2065 0.2251 0.0093 0.0006 0.25 3.62 2512.53 87.37
j+2 2 0.45 0.6753 0.8087 0.8818 0.0365 0.0025 0.50 7.14 5050.25 175.48
j+3 3 0.68 1.1256 1.7740 1.9343 0.0802 0.0055 0.75 10.55 7613.34 264.32
j+4 4 0.90 1.5758 3.0721 3.3497 0.1388 0.0096 1.00 13.85 10202.00 353.92
j+5 5 1.13 2.0260 4.6756 5.0981 0.2113 0.0146 1.25 17.05 12816.41 444.26
j+6 6 2.35 3.4710 7.4714 8.1466 0.3376 0.0233 1.50 20.15 15456.75 535.37
j+7 7 3.57 5.9107 12.2730 13.3821 0.5545 0.0383 1.75 23.13 18123.22 627.24
j+8 8 4.79 8.3504 18.9142 20.6234 0.8546 0.0590 2.00 26.02 20816.00 719.89
j+9 9 6.01 10.7901 27.2425 29.7043 1.2309 0.0850 2.25 30.45 23535.28 814.96
j+10 10 7.22 13.2299 37.1180 40.4723 1.6771 0.1158 2.50 34.74 26281.25 910.78
j+11 11 9.62 16.8456 49.4912 53.9636 2.2362 0.1544 2.75 38.89 29054.09 1007.36
j+12 12 12.02 21.6372 65.2333 71.1284 2.9475 0.2035 3.00 42.90 31854.00 1104.70
j+13 13 14.41 26.4289 84.0786 91.6622 3.7918 0.2622 3.25 46.76 34681.16 1202.80
j+14 14 16.81 31.2206 105.8293 115.2991 4.7349 0.3292 3.50 50.49 37535.75 1301.68
j+15 15 19.20 36.0122 130.2536 141.8415 5.7940 0.4046 3.75 54.08 40417.97 1401.34
j+16 16 21.53 40.7390 157.0785 170.9926 6.9571 0.4873 4.00 57.52 43328.00 1501.79
j+17 17 23.87 45.4009 186.1346 202.4794 8.1724 0.5760 4.25 60.83 46266.03 1603.03
j+18 18 26.20 50.0629 217.2642 236.1974 9.4666 0.6709 4.50 63.99 49232.25 1705.07
j+19 19 28.53 54.7248 250.3312 271.9890 10.8289 0.7714 4.75 67.02 52226.84 1807.91
j+20 20 30.86 59.3867 285.2765 309.7179 12.2207 0.8767 5.00 69.90 55250.00 1911.57
j+21 21 34.16 65.0198 322.8613 350.2963 13.7175 0.9899 5.25 72.65 58301.91 2016.04
j+22 22 37.46 71.6241 363.9097 394.4854 15.2878 1.1123 5.50 75.25 61382.75 2121.34
j+23 23 40.77 78.2284 408.1872 442.1381 16.9755 1.2441 5.75 77.71 64492.72 2227.47
j+24 24 44.07 84.8327 455.6063 493.0198 18.7068 1.3838 6.00 80.03 67632.00 2334.43
j+25 25 47.37 91.4369 505.9931 547.0432 20.5250 1.5318 6.25 82.21 70800.78 2442.24
j+26 26 48.82 96.1931 557.5479 602.1863 22.3192 1.6818 6.50 84.25 73999.25 2550.89
j+27 27 50.28 99.1013 608.5494 656.6492 24.0499 1.8294 6.75 86.15 77227.59 2660.41
j+28 28 51.73 102.0094 659.1027 710.5588 25.7281 1.9748 7.00 87.91 80486.00 2770.78
j+29 29 53.19 104.9176 707.8703 764.0202 28.0750 2.1161        
j+30 30 54.64 107.8257 754.7329 815.6960 30.4816 2.2519        
j+31 31 53.47 108.1074 797.6563 862.8403 32.5920 2.3749        
j+32 32 52.30 105.7627 834.6020 903.4190 34.4085 2.4808        
j+33 33 51.12 103.4180 866.2034 938.0200 35.9083 2.5705        
j+34 34 49.95 101.0734 892.9464 967.2768 37.1652 2.6462        
j+35 35 48.78 98.7287 915.2485 991.6751 38.2133 2.7094        
j+36 36 45.20 93.9744 931.2952 1009.2229 38.9639 2.7548        
j+37 37 41.61 86.8107 939.4466 1018.1059 39.3297 2.7776        
j+38 38 38.03 79.6469 940.3528 1019.0935 39.3703 2.7801        
j+39 39 34.45 72.4831 934.6107 1012.8360 39.1126 2.7641        
j+40 40 30.87 65.3194 922.7941 999.9300 38.5680 2.7308        
j+41 41 27.65 58.5159 905.7739 981.3100 37.7680 2.6826        
j+42 42 24.43 52.0727 884.3265 957.8466 36.7600 2.6218        
j+43 43 21.20 45.6295 858.8322 929.9560 35.5619 2.5496        
j+44 44 17.98 39.1862 829.6849 898.0185 34.1668 2.4667        
j+45 45 14.76 32.7430 797.2808 862.4279 32.5735 2.3738        
j+46 46 13.38 28.1430 763.5898 825.4238 30.9170 2.2773        
j+47 47 12.00 25.3861 730.5002 788.9758 29.2378 2.1817        
j+48 48 10.63 22.6292 697.9944 753.1293 27.5675 2.0874        
j+49 49 9.25 19.8723 665.9555 717.8666 25.9556 1.9946        
j+50 50 7.87 17.1154 633.3261 683.0709 24.8724 1.9007        
j+51 51 6.46 14.3271 600.1136 647.6532 23.7698 1.8051        
j+52 52 5.05 11.5076 566.3688 611.6211 22.6262 1.7075        
j+53 53 3.64 8.6880 532.1838 575.0568 21.4365 1.6080        
j+54 54 2.23 5.8685 497.5873 538.0522 20.2325 1.5073        
j+55 55 0.82 3.0489 462.7052 500.6362 18.9655 1.4047        
j+56 56 0.66 1.4752 428.7259 464.1804 17.7272 1.3047        
j+57 57 0.49 1.1474 396.7911 429.8733 16.5411 1.2102        
j+58 58 0.33 0.8196 366.8136 397.6107 15.3985 1.1209        
j+59 59 0.16 0.4917 338.6549 367.3054 14.3252 1.0370        
j+60 60 0.00 0.1639 312.2306 338.8188 13.2941 0.9579        
j+61 61 0 0.0000 287.6039 312.2306 12.3133 0.8837        
j+62 62 0 0.0000 264.7940 287.6039 11.4049 0.8150        
j+63 63 0 0.0000 243.6670 264.7940 10.5635 0.7513        
j+64 64 0 0.0000 224.1604 243.6670 9.7533 0.6919        
j+65 65 0 0.0000 206.1512 224.1604 9.0046 0.6370        
j+66 66 0 0.0000 189.5245 206.1512 8.3134 0.5863        
j+67 67 0 0.0000 174.1742 189.5245 7.6752 0.5395        
j+68 68 0 0.0000 160.0061 174.1742 7.0840 0.4963        
j+69 69 0 0.0000 146.9687 160.0061 6.5187 0.4561        
j+70 70 0 0.0000 134.9717 146.9687 5.9985 0.4191        
j+71 71 0 0.0000 123.9319 134.9717 5.5199 0.3851        
j+72 72 0 0.0000 113.7732 123.9319 5.0794 0.3537        
j+73 73 0 0.0000 104.4251 113.7732 4.6740 0.3249        
j+74 74 0 0.0000 95.8230 104.4251 4.3011 0.2984        
j+75 75 0 0.0000 87.9073 95.8230 3.9578 0.2740        
j+76 76 0 0.0000 80.6233 87.9073 3.6420 0.2515        
j+77 77 0 0.0000 73.9414 80.6233 3.3410 0.2307        
j+78 78 0 0.0000 67.8132 73.9414 3.0641 0.2116        
j+79 79 0 0.0000 62.1929 67.8132 2.8101 0.1940        
j+80 80 0 0.0000 57.0384 62.1929 2.5772 0.1780        
j+81 81 0 0.0000 52.3112 57.0384 2.3636 0.1632        
j+82 82 0 0.0000 47.9757 52.3112 2.1677 0.1497        
j+83 83 0 0.0000 43.9995 47.9757 1.9881 0.1373        
j+83 84 0 0.0000 40.3529 43.9995 1.8233 0.1259        
j+83 85 0 0.0000 37.0085 40.3529 1.6722 0.1155        
j+83 86 0 0.0000 33.9413 37.0085 1.5336 0.1059        
j+83 87 0 0.0000 31.1282 33.9413 1.4065 0.0971        
j+83 88 0 0.0000 28.5484 31.1282 1.2899 0.0891        
j+83 89 0 0.0000 26.1823 28.5484 1.1830 0.0817        
j+83 90 0 0.0000 24.0124 26.1823 1.0850 0.0749        
j+83 91 0 0.0000 22.0222 24.0124 0.9951 0.0687        
j+83 92 0 0.0000 20.1971 22.0222 0.9126 0.0630        
j+83 93 0 0.0000 18.5232 20.1971 0.8370 0.0578        
j+83 94 0 0.0000 16.9880 18.5232 0.7676 0.0530        
j+83 95 0 0.0000 15.5800 16.9880 0.7040 0.0486        
j+83 96 0 0.0000 14.2888 15.5800 0.6456 0.0446        
j+83 97 0 0.0000 13.1045 14.2888 0.5921 0.0409        
j+83 98 0 0.0000 12.0185 13.1045 0.5430 0.0375        
j+83 99 0 0.0000 11.0224 12.0185 0.4980 0.0344        
j+83 100 0 0.0000 10.1089 11.0224 0.4568 0.0315        
j+83 101 0 0.0000 9.2710 10.1089 0.4189 0.0289        
j+83 102 0 0.0000 8.5027 9.2710 0.3842 0.0265        
j+83 103 0 0.0000 7.7980 8.5027 0.3523 0.0243        
j+83 104 0 0.0000 7.1517 7.7980 0.3231 0.0223        
j+83 105 0 0.0000 6.5590 7.1517 0.2964 0.0205        
j+83 106 0 0.0000 6.0154 6.5590 0.2718 0.0188        
j+83 107 0 0.0000 5.5168 6.0154 0.2493 0.0172        
j+83 108 0 0.0000 5.0596 5.5168 0.2286 0.0158        
j+83 109 0 0.0000 4.6403 5.0596 0.2097 0.0145        
j+83 110 0 0.0000 4.2557 4.6403 0.1923 0.0133        
j+83 111 0 0.0000 3.9030 4.2557 0.1764 0.0122        
j+83 112 0 0.0000 3.5795 3.9030 0.1617 0.0112        
j+83 113 0 0.0000 3.2828 3.5795 0.1483 0.0102        
j+83 114 0 0.0000 3.0108 3.2828 0.1360 0.0094        
j+83 115 0 0.0000 2.7612 3.0108 0.1248 0.0086        
j+83 116 0 0.0000 2.5324 2.7612 0.1144 0.0079        
j+83 117 0 0.0000 2.3225 2.5324 0.1049 0.0072        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 8.18 Result of Level Pool Routing through the Detention Basin  (50 Yr ARI, 30 Min) (MSMA, 2011)

time step t (min) I Ij+I(j+1) (2Sj/dt)-Qj (2S(j+1)/dt)+Q(j+1) Q(j+1) H (m) Stage H (m) Q (m3/s) Storage S (m3) (2S/dt)+Q
j 0 0.00 0.0000 0 0 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
j+1 1 0.05 0.0502 0.0460 0.0502 0.0021 0.0001 0.25 3.62 2512.53 87.37
j+2 2 0.10 0.1505 0.1803 0.1966 0.0081 0.0006 0.50 7.14 5050.25 175.48
j+3 3 0.15 0.2509 0.3955 0.4312 0.0179 0.0012 0.75 10.55 7613.34 264.32
j+4 4 0.20 0.3513 0.6849 0.7467 0.0309 0.0021 1.00 13.85 10202.00 353.92
j+5 5 0.25 0.4516 1.0423 1.1365 0.0471 0.0033 1.25 17.05 12816.41 444.26
j+6 6 1.22 1.4696 2.3037 2.5119 0.1041 0.0072 1.50 20.15 15456.75 535.37
j+7 7 2.19 3.4050 5.2356 5.7087 0.2366 0.0163 1.75 23.13 18123.22 627.24
j+8 8 3.15 5.3405 9.6996 10.5761 0.4383 0.0303 2.00 26.02 20816.00 719.89
j+9 9 4.12 7.2760 15.5687 16.9756 0.7035 0.0486 2.25 28.80 23535.28 813.31
j+10 10 5.09 9.2115 22.7264 24.7801 1.0269 0.0709 2.50 31.47 26281.25 907.51
j+11 11 7.98 13.0725 32.8320 35.7989 1.4835 0.1024 2.75 35.69 29054.09 1004.16
j+12 12 10.88 18.8592 47.4071 51.6912 2.1421 0.1479 3.00 39.77 31854.00 1101.57
j+13 13 13.77 24.6458 66.0812 72.0529 2.9858 0.2062 3.25 43.71 34681.16 1199.75
j+14 14 16.66 30.4325 88.5429 96.5137 3.9854 0.2759 3.50 47.51 37535.75 1298.70
j+15 15 19.56 36.2191 114.5371 124.7621 5.1125 0.3561 3.75 51.16 40417.97 1398.43
j+16 16 22.16 41.7166 143.5157 156.2537 6.3690 0.4455 4.00 54.68 43328.00 1498.95
j+17 17 24.76 46.9250 175.0200 190.4407 7.7103 0.5421 4.25 58.06 46266.03 1600.26
j+18 18 27.37 52.1333 208.9144 227.1534 9.1195 0.6454 4.50 61.29 49232.25 1702.37
j+19 19 29.97 57.3417 245.0212 266.2561 10.6174 0.7554 4.75 64.39 52226.84 1805.28
j+20 20 32.58 62.5500 283.2883 307.5712 12.1415 0.8707 5.00 67.34 55250.00 1909.01
j+21 21 36.71 69.2824 324.9679 352.5707 13.8014 0.9962 5.25 70.16 58301.91 2013.55
j+22 22 40.83 77.5390 371.3631 402.5069 15.5719 1.1345 5.50 72.83 61382.75 2118.92
j+23 23 44.96 85.7955 422.1811 457.1585 17.4887 1.2854 5.75 75.36 64492.72 2225.12
j+24 24 49.09 94.0520 477.2426 516.2331 19.4952 1.4475 6.00 77.75 67632.00 2332.15
j+25 25 53.22 102.3085 536.3857 579.5511 21.5827 1.6202 6.25 80.00 70800.78 2440.03
j+26 26 55.97 109.1869 598.1625 645.5726 23.7051 1.7995 6.50 82.12 73999.25 2548.76
j+27 27 58.72 114.6872 661.2509 712.8497 25.7994 1.9810 6.75 84.09 77227.59 2658.34
j+28 28 61.47 120.1875 725.7400 781.4385 27.8492 2.1647 7.00 85.92 80486.00 2768.78
j+29 29 64.22 125.6879 791.6699 851.4278 29.8790 2.3512        
j+30 30 66.97 131.1882 858.5768 922.8580 32.1406 2.5397        
j+31 31 67.35 134.3195 922.4993 992.8963 35.1985 2.7209        
j+32 32 67.73 135.0820 981.7267 1057.5813 37.9273 2.8871        
j+33 33 68.11 135.8444 1036.7486 1117.5711 40.4113 3.0407        
j+34 34 68.49 136.6069 1088.0573 1173.3555 42.6491 3.1828        
j+35 35 68.88 137.3693 1136.0397 1225.4266 44.6935 3.3149        
j+36 36 65.22 134.0974 1177.3180 1270.1371 46.4095 3.4278        
j+37 37 61.57 126.7911 1208.7007 1304.1091 47.7042 3.5136        
j+38 38 57.92 119.4848 1231.0114 1328.1856 48.5871 3.5739        
j+39 39 54.26 112.1786 1244.9152 1343.1899 49.1374 3.6115        
j+40 40 50.61 104.8723 1251.0289 1349.7875 49.3793 3.6281        
j+41 41 45.24 95.8459 1248.3299 1346.8749 49.2725 3.6208        
j+42 42 39.86 85.0994 1235.8705 1333.4293 48.7794 3.5871        
j+43 43 34.49 74.3529 1214.3666 1310.2234 47.9284 3.5289        
j+44 44 29.12 63.6064 1184.5524 1277.9730 46.7103 3.4476        
j+45 45 23.74 52.8599 1147.1053 1237.4123 45.1535 3.3452        
j+46 46 21.24 44.9785 1105.2830 1192.0838 43.4004 3.2305        
j+47 47 18.73 39.9623 1062.2024 1145.2452 41.5214 3.1112        
j+48 48 16.22 34.9460 1017.9800 1097.1484 39.5842 2.9887        
j+49 49 13.71 29.9298 972.8652 1047.9098 37.5223 2.8623        
j+50 50 11.20 24.9135 926.9554 997.7787 35.4117 2.7335        
j+51 51 9.40 20.6061 881.1231 947.5615 33.2192 2.6036        
j+52 52 7.60 17.0075 835.7219 898.1306 31.2044 2.4751        
j+53 53 5.80 13.4089 789.5031 849.1307 29.8138 2.3451        
j+54 54 4.01 9.8103 742.5516 799.3134 28.3809 2.2126        
j+55 55 2.21 6.2116 695.0085 748.7632 26.8774 2.0773        
j+56 56 1.76 3.9711 648.2444 698.9796 25.3676 1.9436        
j+57 57 1.32 3.0886 603.5642 651.3330 23.8844 1.8150        
j+58 58 0.88 2.2062 560.8988 605.7704 22.4358 1.6916        
j+59 59 0.44 1.3237 520.1846 562.2225 21.0189 1.5731        
j+60 60 0.00 0.4412 481.3370 520.6259 19.6444 1.4595        
j+61 61 0 0.0000 444.7171 481.3370 18.3100 1.3517        
j+62 62 0 0.0000 410.5848 444.7171 17.0662 1.2512        
j+63 63 0 0.0000 378.8688 410.5848 15.8580 1.1568        
j+64 64 0 0.0000 349.3992 378.8688 14.7348 1.0690        
j+65 65 0 0.0000 322.0304 349.3992 13.6844 0.9874        
j+66 66 0 0.0000 296.6807 322.0304 12.6748 0.9110        
j+67 67 0 0.0000 273.2012 296.6807 11.7397 0.8403        
j+68 68 0 0.0000 251.4540 273.2012 10.8736 0.7748        
j+69 69 0 0.0000 231.3496 251.4540 10.0522 0.7138        
j+70 70 0 0.0000 212.7885 231.3496 9.2805 0.6572        
j+71 71 0 0.0000 195.6523 212.7885 8.5681 0.6050        
j+72 72 0 0.0000 179.8316 195.6523 7.9104 0.5568        
j+73 73 0 0.0000 165.2253 179.8316 7.3031 0.5123        
j+74 74 0 0.0000 151.7714 165.2253 6.7270 0.4709        
j+75 75 0 0.0000 139.3911 151.7714 6.1902 0.4327        
j+76 76 0 0.0000 127.9987 139.3911 5.6962 0.3976        
j+77 77 0 0.0000 117.5154 127.9987 5.2416 0.3653        
j+78 78 0 0.0000 107.8687 117.5154 4.8234 0.3355        
j+79 79 0 0.0000 98.9918 107.8687 4.4385 0.3082        
j+80 80 0 0.0000 90.8233 98.9918 4.0843 0.2830        
j+81 81 0 0.0000 83.3066 90.8233 3.7583 0.2598        
j+82 82 0 0.0000 76.4022 83.3066 3.4522 0.2384        
j+83 83 0 0.0000 70.0701 76.4022 3.1661 0.2186        
j+83 84 0 0.0000 64.2628 70.0701 2.9037 0.2005        
j+83 85 0 0.0000 58.9367 64.2628 2.6630 0.1839        
j+83 86 0 0.0000 54.0521 58.9367 2.4423 0.1686        
j+83 87 0 0.0000 49.5724 54.0521 2.2399 0.1547        
j+83 88 0 0.0000 45.4639 49.5724 2.0542 0.1418        
j+83 89 0 0.0000 41.6959 45.4639 1.8840 0.1301        
j+83 90 0 0.0000 38.2402 41.6959 1.7279 0.1193        
j+83 91 0 0.0000 35.0709 38.2402 1.5847 0.1094        
j+83 92 0 0.0000 32.1642 35.0709 1.4533 0.1003        
j+83 93 0 0.0000 29.4985 32.1642 1.3329 0.0920        
j+83 94 0 0.0000 27.0537 29.4985 1.2224 0.0844        
j+83 95 0 0.0000 24.8115 27.0537 1.1211 0.0774        
j+83 96 0 0.0000 22.7552 24.8115 1.0282 0.0710        
j+83 97 0 0.0000 20.8692 22.7552 0.9430 0.0651        
j+83 98 0 0.0000 19.1396 20.8692 0.8648 0.0597        
j+83 99 0 0.0000 17.5534 19.1396 0.7931 0.0548        
j+83 100 0 0.0000 16.0986 17.5534 0.7274 0.0502        
j+83 101 0 0.0000 14.7643 16.0986 0.6671 0.0461        
j+83 102 0 0.0000 13.5407 14.7643 0.6118 0.0422        
j+83 103 0 0.0000 12.4184 13.5407 0.5611 0.0387        
j+83 104 0 0.0000 11.3892 12.4184 0.5146 0.0355        
j+83 105 0 0.0000 10.4453 11.3892 0.4720 0.0326        
j+83 106 0 0.0000 9.5796 10.4453 0.4328 0.0299        
j+83 107 0 0.0000 8.7857 9.5796 0.3970 0.0274        
j+83 108 0 0.0000 8.0575 8.7857 0.3641 0.0251        
j+83 109 0 0.0000 7.3897 8.0575 0.3339 0.0231        
j+83 110 0 0.0000 6.7773 7.3897 0.3062 0.0211        
j+83 111 0 0.0000 6.2156 6.7773 0.2808 0.0194        
j+83 112 0 0.0000 5.7004 6.2156 0.2576 0.0178        
j+83 113 0 0.0000 5.2280 5.7004 0.2362 0.0163        
j+83 114 0 0.0000 4.7947 5.2280 0.2166 0.0150        
j+83 115 0 0.0000 4.3973 4.7947 0.1987 0.0137        
j+83 116 0 0.0000 4.0329 4.3973 0.1822 0.0126        
j+83 117 0 0.0000 3.6986 4.0329 0.1671 0.0115        
j+83 118 0 0.0000 3.3921 3.6986 0.1533 0.0106        
j+83 119 0 0.0000 3.1110 3.3921 0.1406 0.0097        
j+83 120 0 0.0000 2.8531 3.1110 0.1289 0.0089        
j+83 121 0 0.0000 2.6167 2.8531 0.1182 0.0082        
j+83 122 0 0.0000 2.3998 2.6167 0.1084 0.0075        

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 8.19 Result of Level Pool Routing through the Detention Basin  (100 Year ARI, 30 Min) (MSMA, 2000)

time step t (min) I Ij+I(j+1) (2Sj/dt)-Qj (2S(j+1)/dt)+Q(j+1) Q(j+1) H (m) Stage H (m) Q (m3/s) Storage S (m3) (2S/dt)+Q
j 0 0.00 0.0000 0 0 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
j+1 1 0.30 0.2958 0.2713 0.2958 0.0123 0.0008 0.25 3.62 2512.53 87.37
j+2 2 0.59 0.8875 1.0628 1.1588 0.0480 0.0033 0.50 7.14 5050.25 175.48
j+3 3 0.89 1.4792 2.3313 2.5420 0.1053 0.0073 0.75 10.55 7613.34 264.32
j+4 4 1.18 2.0709 4.0373 4.4022 0.1824 0.0126 1.00 13.85 10202.00 353.92
j+5 5 1.48 2.6625 6.1446 6.6999 0.2776 0.0192 1.25 17.05 12816.41 444.26
j+6 6 2.82 4.3012 9.5801 10.4458 0.4329 0.0299 1.50 20.15 15456.75 535.37
j+7 7 4.16 6.9869 15.1940 16.5670 0.6865 0.0474 1.75 23.13 18123.22 627.24
j+8 8 5.51 9.6726 22.8057 24.8666 1.0305 0.0712 2.00 26.02 20816.00 719.89
j+9 9 6.85 12.3584 32.2497 35.1640 1.4572 0.1006 2.25 28.80 23535.28 813.31
j+10 10 8.19 15.0441 43.3741 47.2937 1.9598 0.1353 2.50 31.47 26281.25 907.51
j+11 11 10.84 19.0313 57.2333 62.4054 2.5860 0.1786 2.75 35.69 29054.09 1004.16
j+12 12 13.48 24.3202 74.7944 81.5535 3.3795 0.2334 3.00 39.77 31854.00 1101.57
j+13 13 16.13 29.6090 95.8030 104.4034 4.3002 0.2983 3.25 44.25 34681.16 1200.29
j+14 14 18.77 34.8978 120.0020 130.7009 5.3494 0.3729 3.50 49.04 37535.75 1300.24
j+15 15 21.42 40.1866 147.1366 160.1886 6.5260 0.4566 3.75 53.99 40417.97 1401.25
j+16 16 23.98 45.3992 176.9543 192.5358 7.7908 0.5480 4.00 59.03 43328.00 1503.30
j+17 17 26.55 50.5354 209.2249 227.4896 9.1324 0.6464 4.25 64.14 46266.03 1606.34
j+18 18 29.12 55.6716 243.7619 264.8965 10.5673 0.7516 4.50 69.28 49232.25 1710.36
j+19 19 31.69 60.8078 280.5082 304.5697 12.0307 0.8623 4.75 74.46 52226.84 1815.35
j+20 20 34.26 65.9440 319.3007 346.4521 13.5757 0.9792 5.00 79.64 55250.00 1921.31
j+21 21 37.89 72.1481 361.0883 391.4488 15.1803 1.1039 5.25 84.84 58301.91 2028.23
j+22 22 41.53 79.4201 406.6729 440.5084 16.9178 1.2396 5.50 90.02 61382.75 2136.11
j+23 23 45.16 86.6922 455.9280 493.3650 18.7185 1.3847 5.75 95.20 64492.72 2244.96
j+24 24 48.80 93.9642 508.6567 549.8922 20.6177 1.5395 6.00 100.36 67632.00 2354.76
j+25 25 52.44 101.2362 564.7530 609.8929 22.5700 1.7028 6.25 105.49 70800.78 2465.52
j+26 26 54.02 106.4592 622.2057 671.2122 24.5032 1.8687 6.50 110.60 73999.25 2577.24
j+27 27 55.61 109.6330 679.0909 731.8388 26.3740 2.0320 6.75 115.68 77227.59 2689.93
j+28 28 57.20 112.8069 735.5771 791.8978 28.1603 2.1927 7.00 120.72 80486.00 2803.58
j+29 29 58.78 115.9808 791.7925 851.5579 29.8827 2.3515        
j+30 30 60.37 119.1547 847.7060 910.9472 31.6206 2.5089        
j+31 31 59.06 119.4346 898.9926 967.1406 34.0740 2.6542        
j+32 32 57.76 116.8205 943.4567 1015.8132 36.1782 2.7799        
j+33 33 56.45 114.2064 981.8017 1057.6631 37.9307 2.8873        
j+34 34 55.14 111.5924 1014.5401 1093.3940 39.4270 2.9790        
j+35 35 53.84 108.9783 1041.9866 1123.5184 40.7659 3.0556        
j+36 36 49.90 103.7326 1062.1715 1145.7193 41.7739 3.1118        
j+37 37 45.96 95.8554 1073.3615 1158.0269 42.3327 3.1430        
j+38 38 42.02 87.9781 1076.3734 1161.3396 42.4831 3.1514        
j+39 39 38.08 80.1008 1071.9499 1156.4742 42.2622 3.1390        
j+40 40 34.14 72.2235 1060.7660 1144.1734 41.7037 3.1079        
j+41 41 30.60 64.7424 1043.7960 1125.5084 40.8562 3.0606        
j+42 42 27.06 57.6575 1021.9245 1101.4534 39.7645 2.9997        
j+43 43 23.52 50.5725 995.3932 1072.4970 38.5519 2.9254        
j+44 44 19.97 43.4876 964.5923 1038.8808 37.1442 2.8391        
j+45 45 16.43 36.4026 929.8908 1000.9949 35.5521 2.7418        
j+46 46 14.91 31.3444 893.6029 961.2352 33.8162 2.6390        
j+47 47 13.40 28.3129 857.7168 921.9158 32.0995 2.5373        
j+48 48 11.88 25.2814 821.4483 882.9982 30.7749 2.4349        
j+49 49 10.37 22.2499 784.3790 843.6983 29.6596 2.3307        
j+50 50 8.85 19.2184 746.5808 803.5974 28.5083 2.2240        
j+51 51 7.30 16.1525 708.1475 762.7333 27.2929 2.1147        
j+52 52 5.75 13.0521 669.0846 721.1996 26.0575 2.0035        
j+53 53 4.20 9.9517 629.5428 679.0363 24.7468 1.8898        
j+54 54 2.65 6.8513 589.5554 636.3941 23.4193 1.7747        
j+55 55 1.10 3.7510 549.2458 593.3064 22.0303 1.6577        
j+56 56 0.88 1.9807 509.9042 551.2265 20.6611 1.5431        
j+57 57 0.66 1.5405 472.7796 511.4448 19.3326 1.4343        
j+58 58 0.44 1.1004 437.7666 473.8800 18.0567 1.3313        
j+59 59 0.22 0.6602 404.7388 438.4268 16.8440 1.2338        
j+60 60 0.00 0.2201 373.6413 404.9588 15.6588 1.1412        
j+61 61 0 0.0000 344.5421 373.6413 14.5496 1.0546        
j+62 62 0 0.0000 317.5316 344.5421 13.5053 0.9738        
j+63 63 0 0.0000 292.5138 317.5316 12.5089 0.8985        
j+64 64 0 0.0000 269.3417 292.5138 11.5860 0.8287        
j+65 65 0 0.0000 247.8792 269.3417 10.7313 0.7640        
j+66 66 0 0.0000 228.0493 247.8792 9.9150 0.7037        
j+67 67 0 0.0000 209.7415 228.0493 9.1539 0.6479        
j+68 68 0 0.0000 192.8392 209.7415 8.4512 0.5964        
j+69 69 0 0.0000 177.2344 192.8392 7.8024 0.5489        
j+70 70 0 0.0000 162.8275 177.2344 7.2035 0.5049        
j+71 71 0 0.0000 149.5649 162.8275 6.6313 0.4641        
j+72 72 0 0.0000 137.3607 149.5649 6.1021 0.4265        
j+73 73 0 0.0000 126.1304 137.3607 5.6152 0.3918        
j+74 74 0 0.0000 115.7962 126.1304 5.1671 0.3600        
j+75 75 0 0.0000 106.2867 115.7962 4.7548 0.3307        
j+76 76 0 0.0000 97.5360 106.2867 4.3753 0.3037        
j+77 77 0 0.0000 89.4836 97.5360 4.0262 0.2788        
j+78 78 0 0.0000 82.0738 89.4836 3.7049 0.2560        
j+79 79 0 0.0000 75.2717 82.0738 3.4011 0.2348        
j+80 80 0 0.0000 69.0332 75.2717 3.1192 0.2154        
j+81 81 0 0.0000 63.3118 69.0332 2.8607 0.1975        
j+82 82 0 0.0000 58.0646 63.3118 2.6236 0.1812        
j+83 83 0 0.0000 53.2523 58.0646 2.4062 0.1661        
j+83 84 0 0.0000 48.8388 53.2523 2.2067 0.1524        
j+83 85 0 0.0000 44.7911 48.8388 2.0239 0.1397        
j+83 86 0 0.0000 41.0789 44.7911 1.8561 0.1282        
j+83 87 0 0.0000 37.6743 41.0789 1.7023 0.1175        
j+83 88 0 0.0000 34.5519 37.6743 1.5612 0.1078        
j+83 89 0 0.0000 31.6883 34.5519 1.4318 0.0989        
j+83 90 0 0.0000 29.0620 31.6883 1.3131 0.0907        
j+83 91 0 0.0000 26.6534 29.0620 1.2043 0.0832        
j+83 92 0 0.0000 24.4444 26.6534 1.1045 0.0763        
j+83 93 0 0.0000 22.4184 24.4444 1.0130 0.0699        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 8.20 Result of Level Pool Routing through the Detention Basin (100 Year ARI, 30 min) (MSMA, 2011)

time step t (min) I Ij+I(j+1) (2Sj/dt)-Qj (2S(j+1)/dt)+Q(j+1) Q(j+1) H (m) Stage H (m) Q (m3/s) Storage S (m3) (2S/dt)+Q
j 0 0.00 0.0000 0 0 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
j+1 1 0.11 0.1138 0.1044 0.1138 0.0047 0.0003 0.25 3.62 2512.53 87.37
j+2 2 0.23 0.3413 0.4088 0.4457 0.0185 0.0013 0.50 7.14 5050.25 175.48
j+3 3 0.34 0.5689 0.8966 0.9777 0.0405 0.0028 0.75 10.55 7613.34 264.32
j+4 4 0.46 0.7965 1.5528 1.6931 0.0702 0.0048 1.00 13.85 10202.00 353.92
j+5 5 0.57 1.0240 2.3633 2.5768 0.1068 0.0074 1.25 17.05 12816.41 444.26
j+6 6 1.65 2.2224 4.2056 4.5856 0.1900 0.0131 1.50 20.15 15456.75 535.37
j+7 7 2.74 4.3914 7.8845 8.5970 0.3563 0.0246 1.75 23.13 18123.22 627.24
j+8 8 3.82 6.5604 13.2477 14.4449 0.5986 0.0413 2.00 26.02 20816.00 719.89
j+9 9 4.91 8.7295 20.1558 21.9772 0.9107 0.0629 2.25 28.80 23535.28 813.31
j+10 10 5.99 10.8985 28.4806 31.0543 1.2869 0.0889 2.50 31.47 26281.25 907.51
j+11 11 9.24 15.2321 40.0898 43.7127 1.8114 0.1251 2.75 35.69 29054.09 1004.16
j+12 12 12.49 21.7302 56.6965 61.8200 2.5618 0.1769 3.00 39.77 31854.00 1101.57
j+13 13 15.74 28.2283 77.8863 84.9247 3.5192 0.2430 3.25 43.71 34681.16 1199.75
j+14 14 18.99 34.7264 103.3572 112.6127 4.6277 0.3216 3.50 47.51 37535.75 1298.70
j+15 15 22.24 41.2245 132.7751 144.5817 5.9033 0.4123 3.75 51.16 40417.97 1398.43
j+16 16 25.16 47.3931 165.5361 180.1682 7.3161 0.5132 4.00 55.22 43328.00 1499.49
j+17 17 28.08 53.2323 201.1731 218.7683 8.7976 0.6218 4.25 59.59 46266.03 1601.80
j+18 18 31.00 59.0714 239.4653 260.2445 10.3896 0.7385 4.50 64.12 49232.25 1705.19
j+19 19 33.92 64.9106 280.3287 304.3759 12.0236 0.8618 4.75 68.74 52226.84 1809.63
j+20 20 36.83 70.7498 323.5858 351.0785 13.7464 0.9921 5.00 73.42 55250.00 1915.09
j+21 21 41.46 78.2942 370.7805 401.8799 15.5497 1.1327 5.25 78.15 58301.91 2021.54
j+22 22 46.08 87.5437 423.2676 458.3242 17.5283 1.2886 5.50 82.90 61382.75 2128.99
j+23 23 50.71 96.7933 480.8104 520.0609 19.6252 1.4580 5.75 87.66 64492.72 2237.42
j+24 24 55.33 106.0429 543.2127 586.8533 21.8203 1.6401 6.00 92.43 67632.00 2346.83
j+25 25 59.96 115.2925 610.2898 658.5052 24.1077 1.8344 6.25 97.20 70800.78 2457.23
j+26 26 63.02 122.9800 680.4368 733.2698 26.4165 2.0358 6.50 101.95 73999.25 2568.60
j+27 27 66.08 129.1054 752.1719 809.5422 28.6852 2.2399 6.75 106.69 77227.59 2680.94
j+28 28 69.15 135.2308 825.6029 887.4027 30.8999 2.4466 7.00 111.40 80486.00 2794.27
j+29 29 72.21 141.3563 898.8270 966.9591 34.0661 2.6538        
j+30 30 75.27 147.4817 971.3982 1046.3087 37.4553 2.8582        
j+31 31 75.68 150.9496 1041.1420 1122.3477 40.6029 3.0529        
j+32 32 76.08 151.7598 1106.0353 1192.9018 43.4332 3.2326        
j+33 33 76.49 152.5701 1166.6716 1258.6054 45.9669 3.3987        
j+34 34 76.89 153.3804 1223.4742 1320.0519 48.2888 3.5535        
j+35 35 77.30 154.1906 1276.8616 1377.6649 50.4016 3.6980        
j+36 36 73.21 150.5085 1322.7183 1427.3701 52.3259 3.8216        
j+37 37 69.12 142.3340 1357.3725 1465.0523 53.8399 3.9148        
j+38 38 65.04 134.1594 1381.7243 1491.5319 54.9038 3.9803        
j+39 39 60.95 125.9849 1396.5598 1507.7092 55.5747 4.0201        
j+40 40 56.86 117.8104 1402.6517 1514.3702 55.8592 4.0364        
j+41 41 50.85 107.7113 1398.9869 1510.3630 55.6881 4.0266        
j+42 42 44.84 95.6877 1384.6145 1494.6746 55.0301 3.9881        
j+43 43 38.83 83.6641 1360.3395 1468.2786 53.9695 3.9228        
j+44 44 32.81 71.6405 1326.9578 1431.9801 52.5111 3.8330        
j+45 45 26.80 59.6170 1285.1181 1386.5748 50.7284 3.7203        
j+46 46 24.00 50.7990 1238.1758 1335.9171 48.8706 3.5933        
j+47 47 21.19 45.1866 1189.5281 1283.3624 46.9171 3.4613        
j+48 48 18.38 39.5743 1139.4333 1229.1024 44.8345 3.3242        
j+49 49 15.58 33.9619 1088.0938 1173.3952 42.6507 3.1829        
j+50 50 12.77 28.3495 1035.7113 1116.4433 40.3660 3.0379        
j+51 51 10.76 23.5302 983.2478 1059.2415 37.9968 2.8914        
j+52 52 8.75 19.5040 931.4942 1002.7518 35.6288 2.7464        
j+53 53 6.73 15.4777 880.5850 946.9719 33.1934 2.6021        
j+54 54 4.72 11.4514 829.9736 892.0365 31.0314 2.4589        
j+55 55 2.71 7.4252 778.4371 837.3988 29.4809 2.3139        
j+56 56 2.16 4.8708 727.4982 783.3079 27.9049 2.1697        
j+57 57 1.62 3.7884 678.5716 731.2866 26.3575 2.0305        
j+58 58 1.08 2.7060 631.6445 681.2776 24.8166 1.8958        
j+59 59 0.54 1.6236 586.6240 633.2681 23.3220 1.7663        
j+60 60 0.00 0.5412 543.5043 587.1652 21.8305 1.6409        
j+61 61 0 0.0000 502.6845 543.5043 20.4099 1.5221        
j+62 62 0 0.0000 464.6144 502.6845 19.0350 1.4103        
j+63 63 0 0.0000 429.1305 464.6144 17.7420 1.3058        
j+64 64 0 0.0000 396.1009 429.1305 16.5148 1.2081        
j+65 65 0 0.0000 365.4108 396.1009 15.3450 1.1167        
j+66 66 0 0.0000 336.8945 365.4108 14.2581 1.0318        
j+67 67 0 0.0000 310.4482 336.8945 13.2231 0.9525        
j+68 68 0 0.0000 285.9530 310.4482 12.2476 0.8787        
j+69 69 0 0.0000 263.2650 285.9530 11.3440 0.8104        
j+70 70 0 0.0000 242.2539 263.2650 10.5055 0.7470        
j+71 71 0 0.0000 222.8558 242.2539 9.6991 0.6879        
j+72 72 0 0.0000 204.9468 222.8558 8.9545 0.6333        
j+73 73 0 0.0000 188.4125 204.9468 8.2671 0.5829        
j+74 74 0 0.0000 173.1475 188.4125 7.6325 0.5364        
j+75 75 0 0.0000 159.0614 173.1475 7.0431 0.4934        
j+76 76 0 0.0000 146.0994 159.0614 6.4810 0.4534        
j+77 77 0 0.0000 134.1717 146.0994 5.9638 0.4166        
j+78 78 0 0.0000 123.1958 134.1717 5.4879 0.3828        
j+79 79 0 0.0000 113.0958 123.1958 5.0500 0.3517        
j+80 80 0 0.0000 103.8018 113.0958 4.6470 0.3230        
j+81 81 0 0.0000 95.2494 103.8018 4.2762 0.2966        
j+82 82 0 0.0000 87.3795 95.2494 3.9350 0.2724        
j+83 83 0 0.0000 80.1376 87.3795 3.6209 0.2500        
j+83 84 0 0.0000 73.4959 80.1376 3.3209 0.2293        
j+83 85 0 0.0000 67.4047 73.4959 3.0456 0.2103        
j+83 86 0 0.0000 61.8183 67.4047 2.7932 0.1929        
j+83 87 0 0.0000 56.6948 61.8183 2.5617 0.1769        
j+83 88 0 0.0000 51.9960 56.6948 2.3494 0.1622        
j+83 89 0 0.0000 47.6867 51.9960 2.1547 0.1488        
j+83 90 0 0.0000 43.7344 47.6867 1.9761 0.1364        
j+83 91 0 0.0000 40.1098 43.7344 1.8123 0.1251        
j+83 92 0 0.0000 36.7855 40.1098 1.6621 0.1148        
j+83 93 0 0.0000 33.7368 36.7855 1.5244 0.1053        
j+83 94 0 0.0000 30.9407 33.7368 1.3980 0.0965        
j+83 95 0 0.0000 28.3764 30.9407 1.2822 0.0885        
j+83 96 0 0.0000 26.0246 28.3764 1.1759 0.0812        
j+83 97 0 0.0000 23.8677 26.0246 1.0784 0.0745        
j+83 98 0 0.0000 21.8896 23.8677 0.9891 0.0683        
j+83 99 0 0.0000 20.0754 21.8896 0.9071 0.0626        
j+83 100 0 0.0000 18.4116 20.0754 0.8319 0.0574        
j+83 101 0 0.0000 16.8856 18.4116 0.7630 0.0527        
j+83 102 0 0.0000 15.4862 16.8856 0.6997 0.0483        
j+83 103 0 0.0000 14.2027 15.4862 0.6417 0.0443        
j+83 104 0 0.0000 13.0256 14.2027 0.5886 0.0406        
j+83 105 0 0.0000 11.9460 13.0256 0.5398 0.0373        
j+83 106 0 0.0000 10.9560 11.9460 0.4950 0.0342        
j+83 107 0 0.0000 10.0480 10.9560 0.4540 0.0313        
j+83 108 0 0.0000 9.2152 10.0480 0.4164 0.0288        
j+83 109 0 0.0000 8.4514 9.2152 0.3819 0.0264        
j+83 110 0 0.0000 7.7510 8.4514 0.3502 0.0242        
j+83 111 0 0.0000 7.1086 7.7510 0.3212 0.0222        
j+83 112 0 0.0000 6.5195 7.1086 0.2946 0.0203        
j+83 113 0 0.0000 5.9791 6.5195 0.2702 0.0187        
j+83 114 0 0.0000 5.4836 5.9791 0.2478 0.0171        
j+83 115 0 0.0000 5.0291 5.4836 0.2272 0.0157        
j+83 116 0 0.0000 4.6123 5.0291 0.2084 0.0144        
j+83 117 0 0.0000 4.2300 4.6123 0.1911 0.0132        
j+83 118 0 0.0000 3.8795 4.2300 0.1753 0.0121        
j+83 119 0 0.0000 3.5579 3.8795 0.1608 0.0111        
j+83 120 0 0.0000 3.2631 3.5579 0.1474 0.0102        
j+83 121 0 0.0000 2.9926 3.2631 0.1352 0.0093        
j+83 122 0 0.0000 2.7446 2.9926 0.1240 0.0086        
j+83 123 0 0.0000 2.5171 2.7446 0.1137 0.0079        
j+83 124 0 0.0000 2.3085 2.5171 0.1043 0.0072        

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 8.21 Result of Level-Pool Routing (MSMA, 2000)

TYPE MAJOR/MINOR ARI Qp (m3/s) WL (m) Freeboard (m) Structure Levels (m) Qp Permissible (m3/s)
Secondary Major 100 42.48 3.15 0.3 Embankment crest elevation (m)= 3.45  
Primary Major 50 39.37 2.78 0.25 Invert of secondary spillway (m)= 3.03 43.27
Primary Minor 5 27.34 2.12   Invert of primary major outlet (m)= 2.12 29.98

 

Table 8.22  Result of Level-Pool Routing (MSMA, 2011)

TYPE MAJOR/MINOR ARI Qp (m3/s) WL (m) Freeboard (m) Structure Levels (m) Qp Permissible (m3/s)
Secondary Major 100 55.86 4.04 0.3 Embankment crest elevation (m)= 4.34  
Primary Major 50 49.38 3.63 0.25 Invert of secondary spillway (m)= 3.88 61.39
Primary Minor 5 31.70 2.52   Invert of primary major outlet (m)= 2.52 46.81

 

 

Table 8.23 Comparison of Storm Intensity Using MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011)

Intensity (mm/hr)*

/

ARI (Yr)#

MSMA (2011) MSMA (2000) Ratio= A/B
I (mm/hr) (A) I (mm/hr) (B)
15* 30 60 15 30 60 15 30 60
100# 327.0 217.9 134.1 267.4 172.2 110.2 1.22 1.26 1.22
50 292.3 194.7 119.9 242.2 156.6 100.5 1.21 1.24 1.19
5 201.3 134.1 82.6 182.0 117.9 75.7 1.11 1.14 1.09

 

Table 8.24 Comparison of Peak Discharges from the Time-Area Method using MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011)

Intensity (mm/hr)*

/

ARI (Yr)#

MSMA (2011) MSMA (2000) Ratio= A/B
Qp (Post Development) (A) Qp (Post Development) (B)
15* 30 60 15 30 60 15 30 60
100# 69.8 79.3 57.3 55.8 62.4 58.1 1.25 1.27 0.99
50 62.3 70.9 51.2 50.4 56.6 53.0 1.24 1.25 0.97
5 42.6 48.8 35.3 37.5 42.4 39.9 1.14 1.15 0.88
  Qp (Pre Development) (A) Qp (Pre Development) (B) Ratio= A/B
100# na na na na na na na na na
50 53.7 63.4 43.5 41.5 44.8 45.3 1.29 1.41 0.96
5 33.4 41.7 27.5 28.2 31.1 32.0 1.19 1.34 0.86

 

 

Table 8.25 Comparison of Computed Basin Storage Volumes using MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011)

TYPE MSMAM (2011) (A)

 

MSMAM (2000) (B) Ratio (A/B)
VOLUME (M3)

 

43,796 33,547 1.3

 

 


 

Figure 8.1 Stage-Discharge Curve (MSMA, 2000)

(Q1: primary minor, Q2: primary major, Q3: secondary)

 

Figure 8.2 Stage-Discharge Curve (MSMA, 2011)

(Q1: primary minor, Q2: primary major, Q3: secondary)


 

Figure 8.3 Basin Inflow and Outflow Hydrographs for the Critical 5 Year ARI 30 Minute Storm (MSMA, 2000)

 

 

 

Figure 8.4  Basin Inflow and Outflow Hydrographs for the Critical 5 Year ARI 30 Minute Storm (MSMA, 2011)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 8.5  Basin Inflow and Outflow Hydrographs for the Critical 50 Year ARI 30 Minute Storm (MSMA, 2000)

 

 

 

Figure 8.6  Basin Inflow and Outflow Hydrographs for the Critical 50 Year ARI 30 Minute Storm (MSMA, 2011)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 8.7  Basin Inflow and Outflow Hydrographs for the Critical 100 Year ARI 30 Minute Storm (MSMA, 2000)

 

 

 

Figure 8.8  Basin Inflow and Outflow Hydrographs for the Critical 100 Year ARI 30 Minute Storm (MSMA, 2011)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 8.9 Detention Basin Schematic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 8.10 Schematic Outlet Arrangement (MSMA, 2000)

 

 

Figure 8.11 Schematic Outlet Arrangement (MSMA, 2011

 

 

9.    Conclusions

 

Below are the results of investigation in this report:

 

Case Study 1- Design ARI:

 

  1. For medium density residential and commercial and city area, the storm intensity has increased by up to 122% for minor system for an ARI increase from 5 to 10 years, and up to 133% for major system for an ARI increase from 50 year to 100 years between MSMA (2000) and (2011).
  2. It is emphasised that the changes in the storm intensity is not only due to changes in the ARI but also the higher IDF data in MSMA (2011).
  3. Due to the linear nature of the discharge and storm intensity in the Rational Method, it is expected the same proportional increase in the design discharge is observed.

 

Case Study 2- Design Storm:

 

  1. For durations of between 15 to 700 min, the IDF estimates using MSMA (2011) were mostly higher than those estimated using MSMA (2000). In the study, out of 14 stations, 10 of them (or 71%) were higher than the MSMA (2000) curve, while the remaining 4 stations (or 29%) were lower than the first edition estimates.
  2. It is concluded that the design storms estimated based on MSMA (2011) for Kuala Lumpur can be up to about 26% higher than MSMA (2000) for duration below 700 minutes, for 71% of the stations.

 

Case Study 3- Rational Method:

 

  1. For commercial and city area, the peak discharge from MSMA (2011) is about 31% higher than the peak discharge from MSMA (2000). The Q has increased from 16.9 to 22.1 m3/s. The C has increased from 0.905 to 0.95 while the storm intensity has increased from 224.3 mm/hr to 279.4. The increase in C for commercial and city area and storm intensity in MSMA (2011) has attributed to a significantly higher peak discharge.
  2. In conclusion, the peak discharge computed using the Rational Method in MSMA (2011) is up to 31% higher than that in MSMA (2000). This increase is caused principally by the higher storm intensity in MSMA (2011) and by the higher C for commercial and city area in MSMA (2011).
  3. In general, it is concluded that 71% of the stations in Kuala Lumpur will have up to 26% higher storm intensity and up to 31% higher peak discharges for commercial and city area.

 

Case Study 4- Time-Area Method:

 

  • Applying the Time-Area Method to Kuala Lumpur, the peak discharges computed using MSMA (2011) is 1.27 times higher than that using MSMA (2000).
  • The difference is due primarily to the higher temporal pattern for the urban area (Region 5) of Kuala Lumpur.

 

Case Study 5- On-Site Detention:

 

  1. The result shows that for Kuala Lumpur, the PSD and SSR using MSMA (2011) are about 20% and 190% of MSMA (2000).
  2. The PSD and SSR using the ESM Method for Kuala Lumpur is about 55% and 103%, respectively, of those using MSMA (2000).
  3. For Pulau Pinang, the PSD and SSR using MSMA (2011) are about 20% and 180% of MSMA (2000).
  4. The PSD and SSR using the ESM Method for Pulau Pinang is about 55% and 129%, respectively, of those using MSMA (2000).
  5. The approximate Swinburne’s Method in MSMA (2011) results in underestimate of PSD and over estimate of the SSR.
  6. The ESM Method appeared to give slightly higher estimate of SSR compared to MSMA (2000) but a lot lower estimate compare to MSMA (2011).
  7. The ESM Method uses more up-to-date storm data in MSMA (2012) to compute the discharges and applied the exact Swinburne’s Method to compute the SSR.
  8. This suggestS the ESM Method may be used instead of MSMA (2011) to give a better estimate of PSD and SSR.

 

Case Study 6- Sediment Basins:

 

  1. The dry sediment basin volume using MSMA (2011) is half of that using MSMA (2000) for 6 month ARI design (for projects taking more than two years) as MSMA (2011) does not cover 6 month ARI.
  2. The wet sediment basin volume was 65% higher using MSMA (2011) compared to MSMA (2000) because of it was based on 50 mm of rainfall for temporary BMP in MSMA (2011), compared to the 75th percentile storm of 36.75 mm in MSMA (2000) which is lower.
  3. For locations where the 75th percentile 5-day storms are lower than 50 mm, it is expected the wet sedimentation basin volume will decrease compared to MSMA (2000) using MSMA (2011).

 

Case Study 7- Detention Basins:

 

  1. Hydrographs were computed using the Time-Area Method based on MSMA (2000 and 2011) and routed through a detention basin in Kuala Lumpur using the Level-Pool routing procedure.
  2. It was found that the storm intensity increases by up to 1.26 times and the hydrograph peak increases by up to 1.27 times between MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011), while the increase in the storage volume of a detention basin is about 1.30 times.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.         References

 

Drainage and Irrigation Department (1974) Rational Method of Flood Estimation for Rural Catchments in Peninsular Malaysia. Hydrological Procedure No. 5. Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia.

 

Drainage and Irrigation Department (1975) Urban Drainage Design Standards and Procedures for Peninsular Malaysia. Planning and Design Procedure No. 1. Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia.

 

Drainage and Irrigation Department (1976) Flood Estimation for Urban Areas in Peninsular Malaysia. Hydrological Procedure No. 16. Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia.

 

Drainage and Irrigation Department (1980) Design Flood Hydrograph Estimation for Rural Catchments in Peninsular Malaysia. Hydrological Procedure No. 11. Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia.

 

Drainage and Irrigation Department (1982) Estimation of the Design Rainstorm in Peninsular Malaysia (Revised and Updated). Hydrological Procedure No. 1. Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia.

 

Drainage and Irrigation Department (1987) Magnitude and Frequency of Floods in Peninsular Malaysia. Hydrological Procedure No. 4. Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia.

 

Drainage and Irrigation Department (1988) Mean Monthly, Mean Seasonal and Mean Annual Rainfall Maps for Peninsular Malaysia. Water Resources Publication No. 19. Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia.

 

Drainage and Irrigation Department (1989) Rational Method of Flood Estimation for Rural Catchments in Peninsular Malaysia (Revised and Updated). Hydrological Procedure No. 5. Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia.

 

Drainage and Irrigation Department (1991) “Hydrological Data- Rainfall and Evaporation Records for Malaysia 1986-1990 Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia.

 

Drainage and Irrigation Department (1995) “Hydrological Data- Streamflow and River Suspended Sediment Records 1986-1990 Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia.

 

Drainage and Irrigation Department (2000) “Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia” Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia.

 

Drainage and Irrigation Department (2010) “Review and Updated the Hydrological Procedure NO. 1- Estimation of Design Rainstorm in Peninsular Malaysia” December, Prepared by NAHRIM.

 

Drainage and Irrigation Department (2011) “Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia” (Manual Saliran Mesra Alam Malaysia), Second edition.

 

Quek, K.H. (1993) “Assessment of flood Estimation Techniques for Urbanizing Areas using DID Hydrological Procedures” Seminar on Drainage and Flood Issues in Urban Development, organised by Water Resources Technical Division, the Institution of Engineers Malaysia, Regent Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, 18th January.

 

Quek K. H. (1999) “Water Quality Modelling of Wetlands and Lake” Journal of the Institution of Engineers Malaysia, Vol. 60, No. 3, September 1999, pp 11-19.

 

Quek K. H. and Carroll D. (1999) “Flood Hydrology Study of Multi-Cell Multi-Stage Wetlands and Lake in Putrajaya” Journal of the Institution of Engineers Malaysia, Vol 60, No. 1, March.

 

 

 

 

 

Contents

Abstract. 1

  1. Introduction. 4

1.1     Evolution of Drainage Guidelines in Malaysia. 4

1.2     Overall Changes in MSMA (2011) from MSMA (2000). 4

  1. Changes in the Design ARI. 7

2.1     Major and Minor Design ARI (MSMA, 2000). 7

2.2     Major and Minor Design ARI (MSMA, 2011). 7

2.3     Comparison. 7

2.4     Summary of Changes. 7

2.5     Case Study on Design ARI 9

2.5.1       Methodology. 9

2.5.2       Evaluation. 9

  1. Changes in Design Storm, Temporal Pattern and Areal Reduction Factor. 11

3.1     Design Storm Computation. 11

3.1.1       Evolution of Methods of Computation for Design Storm.. 11

3.1.2       Derivation of IDF Curves using MSMA (2000). 11

3.1.3       Derivation of IDF Curves using MSMA (2011). 11

3.1.4       Comparison. 12

3.1.5       Evaluation. 12

3.2     Storm Temporal Pattern. 13

3.2.1       Temporal Pattern in MSMA (2000). 13

3.2.2       Temporal Pattern in MSMA (2011). 13

3.2.3       Evaluation. 14

3.3     Areal Reduction Factor. 14

3.4     Case Study on Design Storm.. 15

3.4.1       Methodology. 15

3.4.2       Evaluation. 16

  1. Changes in the Rational Method. 24

4.1      Rational Method in MSMA (2000). 24

4.2      Rational Method in MSMA (2011). 26

4.3      Comparison. 26

4.4      Case Study on Rational Method. 28

4.4.1       Rational Method (MSMA, 2000). 29

4.4.2       Rational Method (MSMA, 2011). 31

4.5     Evaluation. 32

  1. Changes in the Time-Area Method. 35

5.1      Time-Area Method in MSMA (2000). 35

5.2      Time-Area Method in MSMA (2011). 35

5.3      Comparison. 36

5.4      Case Study on Time-Area Method. 36

5.4.1       Time-Area Method (MSMA, 2000). 36

5.4.2       Time-Area Method (MSMA, 2011). 36

5.5      Evaluation. 38

  1. Changes in On-Site Detention. 39

6.1     OSD Sizing using MSMA (2000). 39

6.1.1       Theory. 39

6.1.2       Permissible Site Discharge (PSD). 40

6.1.3       Site Storage Requirement (SSR). 41

6.1.4       OSD Sizing Procedure. 43

6.2     OSD Sizing using MSMA (2011). 45

6.2.1       Limiting Catchment Areas for OSD in MSMA (2011). 45

6.2.2       Method for OSD Design in MSMA (2011). 45

6.3     Case Study on On-Site Detention for Kuala Lumpur. 55

6.3.1       OSD in MSMA (2000). 55

6.3.2       OSD in MSMA (2011). 62

6.3.3       Exact Swinburne Method (ESM) Applied to MSMA2 Data. 65

6.4     Case Study on On-Site Detention for Pulau Pinang. 69

6.4.1       OSD in MSMA (2000). 69

6.4.2       OSD in MSMA (2011). 76

6.4.3       Exact Swinburne Method (ESM) Applied to MSMA2 Data. 79

6.5     Evaluation. 83

  1. Changes in Sediment Basins. 84

7.1     Criteria for Sizing of Wet and Dry Sediment Basins. 84

7.2     Sediment Basins in MSMA (2000). 84

7.1.1       Dry Sediment Basin. 84

7.1.2       Wet Sediment Basin. 84

7.2     Sediment Basin Theory in MSMA (2011). 85

7.2.1       Criteria for Sizing of Sediment Basins. 85

7.2.2       Design of Dry Sediment Basins. 86

7.2.3       Design of Wet Sediment Basins. 86

7.3     Case Study on Design of a Dry Sediment Basin. 86

7.3.1       MSMA (2000). 86

7.3.2       MSMA (2011). 87

7.4     Case Study on Design of a Wet Sediment Basin. 87

7.4.1       MSMA (2000). 87

7.4.2       MSMA (2011). 88

7.5     Evaluation. 88

  1. Changes in Detention Basins. 89

8.1     General Approach. 89

8.2     Approach Using MSMA (2000 and 2011). 89

8.2.1       Design Storm.. 89

8.2.2       Temporal Pattern. 90

8.2.3       Loss Model in Time-Area Method. 91

8.3     Comparison. 92

8.4     Case Study on Detention Basin. 92

8.4.1       Methodology. 92

8.4.2       Problem.. 92

8.4.3       Primary Minor Outlet. 93

8.4.4       Primary Major Outlet. 93

8.4.5       Secondary Spillway. 93

8.5     Evaluation. 94

  1. Conclusions. 120
  2. References. 122

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1.1 Comparison of Chapters in MSMA (2000, 2011) (After DID Seminar Paper, 2012). 5

Table 2.1 Design Storm ARIs for Urban Stormwater System Adoption (MSMA, 2000). 8

Table 2.2 Design Storm ARI Adoption (MSMA, 2011). 8

Table 2.3 Effect of Changes in ARI for Various Landuses on the Storm Intensity for Major and Minor System for Sg Batu, Kuala Lumpur. 10

Table 3.1 Standard Durations for Urban Stormwater Drainage. 13

Table 3.2 Recommended Intervals for Design Rainfall Temporal Pattern (Table 2.4 in MSMA, 2011). 13

Table 3.3 Areal Reduction Factors. 15

Table 3.4  IDF for Kuala Lumpur (MSMA 2000). 17

Table 3.5 Short Duration IDF for Kuala Lumpur (Duration= 5 min) (MSMA 2000). 17

Table 3.6 Short Duration IDF for Kuala Lumpur (Duration= 15 min) (MSMA 2000). 17

Table 3.7 IDF Data for Kuala Lumpur (Station No. 3116004) (MSMA 2011). 18

Table 3.8 Summary of IDF Data for Kuala Lumpur (MSMA, 2000) and 14 Stations in Kuala Lumpur (MSMA 2011) for ARI of 100 YR. 18

Table 3.9 Summary of Stations in Kuala Lumpur (After Table 2.B1 in MSMA, 2011). 19

Table 4.1 Recommended Runoff Coefficients for Various Landuses (DID, 1980; Chow et al., 1988; QUDM, 2007 and Darwin Harbour, 2009) (After Table 2.5 of MSMA, 2011). 28

Table 4.2 Computation of Peak Discharges using the Rational Method in MSMA (2000). 34

Table 4.3 Computation of Peak Discharges using the Rational Method in MSMA (2011). 34

Table 4.4  Comparison of Peak Discharges using the Rational Method in MSMA (2000, 2011). 34

Table 5.1 Recommended Loss Models and Values for Hydrograph (Table 14.4 in MSMA, 2000). 35

Table 5.2 Recommended Loss Values for Rainfall Excess Estimation (Chow et al., 1988) (Table 2.6 in MSMA, 2011)  35

Table 5.3 Time Area Method applied to Kuala Lumpur (MSMA, 2000). 36

Table 5.4 Time Area Method applied to Sg Batu, Kuala Lumpur (MSMA, 2011). 37

Table 5.5 Ratio of Storm Intensity for Sg. Batu, Kuala Lumpur (MSMA, 2000 and 2011). 37

Table 5.6 Ratio of Qp using Time Area Method applied to Sg Batu, Kuala Lumpur (MSMA, 2000 and 2011)  37

Table 6.1 Limiting Catchment Areas for OSD or Dry/Wet Detention Pond in MSMA (2011). 45

Table 6.2 Pervious and Impervious Areas. 56

Table 6.3 Computation of Pre/Post Development Peaks. 61

Table 6.4 Computation of Permissible Site Discharge (PSD). 61

Table 6.5 Computation of Peak Post-Development Flow (QD). 61

Table 6.6 Computation of Site Storage Requirements (SSR). 62

Table 6.7 IDF Data for SK Taman Maluri Kuala Lumpur  (ARI of 2 and 10 Year and Durations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 minutes) (MSMA, 2011). 65

Table 6.8 Computation of Pre/Post Development Peaks. 66

Table 6.9 Computation of Permissible Site Discharge (PSD). 67

Table 6.10 Computation of Post Development Peaks and Site Storage Requirements (SSR). 68

Table 6.11 Pervious and Impervious Areas. 70

Table 6.12 Computation of Pre/Post Development Peaks. 75

Table 6.13 Computation of Permissible Site Discharge (PSD). 75

Table 6.14 Computation of Peak Post-Development Flow (QD). 75

Table 6.15 Computation of Site Storage Requirements (SSR). 76

Table 6.16 IDF Data for Pulau Pinang (ARI of 2 and 10 Year and Durations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 minutes) (MSMA, 2011). 79

Table 6.17 Computation of Pre/Post Development Peaks. 80

Table 6.18 Computation of Permissible Site Discharge (PSD). 81

Table 6.19 Computation of Post Development Peaks and Site Storage Requirements (SSR). 82

Table 6.20 Comparison of OSD Requirements using MSMA (2000, 2011) for Kuala Lumpur. 83

Table 6.21 Comparison of OSD Requirements using MSMA (2000, 2011) for Pulau Pinang. 83

Table 7.1 Sediment Basin Types and Design Considerations. 84

Table 7.2 Dry Sediment Basin Sizing Guidelines in MSMA (2000) (After Table 39.5 of MSMA, 2000). 84

Table 7.3 Wet Sediment Basin Sizing Guidelines in MSMA (2000) (Table 39.6 of MSMA, 2000). 85

Table 7.4 Quality Control Design Criteria (Table 1.3 in MSMA, 2011). 85

Table 7.5 Comparison of Design Requirements for Sediment Basins between MSMA (2000 and 2011). 85

Table 7.6 Dry Sediment Basin Sizing Criteria in MSMA (2011) (Table 12.18 in MSMA, 2011). 86

Table 7.7 Wet Sediment Basin Sizing Volume (m3/ha) in MSMA (2011) (TABLE 12.19). 86

Table 7.8 Summary of Dry and Wet Sediment Basin Volumes based on MSMA (2000 and 2011). 88

Table 8.1 Recommended Loss Models and Values for Hydrograph (Table 14.4 in MSMA, 2000). 91

Table 8.2 Recommended Loss Values for Rainfall Excess Estimation (Chow et al., 1988) (Table 2.6 in MSMA, 2011)  91

Table 8.3 Basin Stage Storage Discharge Data (MSMA, 2000). 95

Table 8.4 Basin Stage Storage Discharge Data (MSMA, 2011). 95

Table 8.5 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (100 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Post Development (MSMA, 2000)  96

Table 8.6 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (100 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Post Development (MSMA, 2011)  96

Table 8.7 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (50 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Post Development (MSMA, 2000)  97

Table 8.8 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (50 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Post Development (MSMA, 2011)  97

Table 8.9 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (5 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Post Development (MSMA, 2000)  98

Table 8.10 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (5 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Post Development (MSMA, 2011)  98

Table 8.11 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (50 Year ARI, 60 Min)- Pre Development (MSMA, 2000)  99

Table 8.12 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (50 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Pre Development (MSMA, 2011)  99

Table 8.13 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (5 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Pre Development (MSMA, 2000)  100

Table 8.14 Result of Time-Area Method Computation (5 Year ARI, 30 Min)- Pre Development (MSMA, 2011)  100

Table 8.15 Result of Level Pool Routing through the Detention Basin (5 Year ARI, 30 Min) (MSMA, 2000)  101

Table 8.16 Result of Level Pool Routing through the Detention Basin (5 Year ARI, 30 min) (MSMA, 2011)  103

Table 8.17 Result of Level Pool Routing through the Detention Basin (50 YEAR ARI, 30 min) (MSMA, 2000)  105

Table 8.18 Result of Level Pool Routing through the Detention Basin  (50 Yr ARI, 30 Min) (MSMA, 2011)  107

Table 8.19 Result of Level Pool Routing through the Detention Basin  (100 Year ARI, 30 Min) (MSMA, 2000)  109

Table 8.20 Result of Level Pool Routing through the Detention Basin (100 Year ARI, 30 min) (MSMA, 2011)  111

Table 8.21 Result of Level-Pool Routing (MSMA, 2000). 113

Table 8.22  Result of Level-Pool Routing (MSMA, 2011). 113

Table 8.23 Comparison of Storm Intensity Using MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011). 113

Table 8.24 Comparison of Peak Discharges from the Time-Area Method using MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011)  113

Table 8.25 Comparison of Computed Basin Storage Volumes using MSMA (2000) and MSMA (2011). 113

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2.1 Effect of Changes in ARI for Various Landuses on the Storm Intensity for Minor System for Sg. Batu, Kuala Lumpur. 10

Figure 2.2 Effect of Changes in ARI for Various Landuses on the Storm Intensity for Major System for Sg. Batu, Kuala Lumpur. 10

Figure 3.1 Plot of Areal Reduction Factors. 15

Figure 3.2 IDF for Kuala Lumpur (MSMA 2000). 20

Figure 3.3 IDF For Kuala Lumpur (MSMA 2011) (Station No. 3116004). 20

Figure 3.4 Comparison of Estimated Rainfall Intensity Frequency Duration Curves for Kuala Lumpur between MSMA 2000 & 2011 (ARI. =100 YR). 21

Figure 3.5 Comparison of Estimated Rainfall Intensity Frequency Duration Curves for Kuala Lumpur between MSMA 2000 & 2011 (ARI. =50 YR). 21

Figure 3.6 Comparison of Estimated Rainfall Intensity Frequency Duration Curves for Kuala Lumpur between MSMA 2000 & 2011 (ARI. =20 YR). 22

Figure 3.7 Comparison of Estimated Rainfall Intensity Frequency Duration Curves for Kuala Lumpur between MSMA 2000 & 2011 (ARI. =10 YR). 22

Figure 3.8 Comparison of Estimated Rainfall Intensity Frequency Duration Curves for Kuala Lumpur between MSMA 2000 & 2011 (ARI. =5 YR). 23

Figure 3.9 Comparison of Estimated Rainfall Intensity Frequency Duration Curves for Kuala Lumpur between MSMA 2000 & 2011 (ARI. =2 YR). 23

Figure 4.1 Steps of Computation in the Rational Method in MSMA (2000). 25

Figure 4.2 Steps of Computation in the Rational Method in MSMA (2011). 27

Figure 4.3 Catchment Map. 33

Figure 6.1 Relationship Between tc and tcs for the Swinburne Method. 39

Figure 6.2 Swinburne Method Assumptions tf= Time for Storage to Fill 40

Figure 6.3 Typical Relationship of Storage Volume to Storm Duration. 42

Figure 6.4 Steps of Computation in OSD Design in MSMA (2000). 44

Figure 6.5 Location of OSD in the Project Site. 55

Figure 6.6 Plot of SSR Versus Storm Duration. 60

Figure 6.7 Summary of OSD Computation using MSMA (2011) for Kuala Lumpur. 64

Figure 6.8 Plot of SSR versus Storm Duration. 68

Figure 6.9 Location of OSD in the Project Site. 69

Figure 6.10 Plot of SSR Versus Storm Duration. 74

Figure 6.11 Summary of OSD Computation using MSMA (2011) for Pulau Pinang. 78

Figure 6.12 Plot of SSR versus Storm Duration. 82

Figure 8.1 Stage-Discharge Curve (MSMA, 2000). 114

Figure 8.2 Stage-Discharge Curve (MSMA, 2011). 114

Figure 8.3 Basin Inflow and Outflow Hydrographs for the Critical 5 Year ARI 30 Minute Storm (MSMA, 2000)  115

Figure 8.4  Basin Inflow and Outflow Hydrographs for the Critical 5 Year ARI 30 Minute Storm (MSMA, 2011)  115

Figure 8.5  Basin Inflow and Outflow Hydrographs for the Critical 50 Year ARI 30 Minute Storm (MSMA, 2000)  116

Figure 8.6  Basin Inflow and Outflow Hydrographs for the Critical 50 Year ARI 30 Minute Storm (MSMA, 2011)  116

Figure 8.7  Basin Inflow and Outflow Hydrographs for the Critical 100 Year ARI 30 Minute Storm (MSMA, 2000)  117

Figure 8.8  Basin Inflow and Outflow Hydrographs for the Critical 100 Year ARI 30 Minute Storm (MSMA, 2011)  117

Figure 8.9 Detention Basin Schematic. 118

Figure 8.10 Schematic Outlet Arrangement (MSMA, 2000). 119

Figure 8.11 Schematic Outlet Arrangement (MSMA, 2011. 119

 

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